Forum Selection: Venue and Removal

AuthorMichael Barr/Sharon Gerstman/Burton Lipshie
 ςενυε µεανσ τηε γεογραπηιχ λοχατιον (χουντψ) ωηερε αν αχτιον ισ ηεαρδ. Οφτεν, ϖενυε µαψ προπερλψ
lie in more than one county. In those cases, the choice of venue is plainti’s.
Ιν χερταιν τψπεσ οφ χασεσ, σπεχιαλ ϖενυε στατυτεσ require plainti to sue in a particular county. In cases not
covered by a special venue statute, plainti may sue in the county in which any party resides.
If plainti selects an ιµπροπερ ϖενυε, δεφενδαντ µαψ µοϖε το ηαϖε τηε χασε τρανσφερρεδ το α προπερ ϖενυε.
Εϖεν ιφ τηε σελεχτιον ισ προπερ, δεφενδαντ µαψ ρεθυεστ τηε χουρτ χηανγε ϖενυε το προµοτε ωιτνεσσ−χονϖενιενχε
ανδ τηε ενδσ οφ ϕυστιχε, ορ το οβταιν αν ιµπαρτιαλ τριαλ.
Α δεφενδαντ µαψ ρεµοϖε το φεδεραλ διστριχτ χουρτ ανψ χιϖιλ αχτιον βρουγητ ιν α στατε χουρτ οϖερ ωηιχη τηε φεδεραλ
διστριχτ χουρτσ ηαϖε οριγιναλ ϕυρισδιχτιον.
 Βασεσ οφ ϖενυε. ςενυε στατυτεσ. ςενυε σελεχτιον. Χηαλλενγινγ ιµπροπερ ϖενυε. Χηανγε φροµ
προπερ ϖενυε. Χηοοσινγ βετωεεν στατε ανδ φεδεραλ χουρτ. Ρεµοϖαλ το φεδεραλ χουρτ.
ςενυε. Ιν τηεορψ, ϖενυε χονσιδερατιονσ σηουλδ προµοτε χονϖενιενχε, εχονοµψ, ανδ φαιρνεσσ. Ιν πραχτιχε, ηοωεϖερ,
plaintis use venue selection to pick a forum advantageous for them and onerous for defendants, thereby enhancing
plaintis’ prospects for settlement and award. Thus defendants must be ready to invoke remedial procedures for
τρανσφερ, ιφ ωαρραντεδ.
Ρεµοϖαλ. Defendants use removal to force plaintis into a federal forum that is advantageous to them and oner
ous to plaintis. Frequently defendants’ counsel have a tactical advantage in federal court because they are more
familiar with federal court practice than plaintis’ counsel. Plaintis may avoid removal by relying only on state
claims and by joining a local defendant. Defendants must follow removal procedures exactly. And plaintis may
have the case remanded to state court if defendants make a procedural misstep.
 CPLR 501-513, CPLR 7502, CPLR 7804(b); 28 U.S.C. §§1331, 1332, 1404, 1407, 1441, 1446, 1447.
Subject Matter Jurisdiction, Ch 6; Personal Jurisdiction, Ch 7; Motion Practice, Ch 16; Service
of Process, Ch 9, Forum non Conveniens, Ch 36.
 See digital access for the following forms:
• Form 8:10, Demand for Change of Venue.
• Form 8:20, Notice of Motion to Change Venue.
• Form 8:30, Armation in Support of Motion to Change Venue.
New York Civil Practice Before Trial 8-2
• Form 8:40, Adavit in Support of Motion to Change Venue.
• Form 8:50, Armation in Opposition to Motion to Change Venue.
• Form 8:60, Adavit in Opposition to Motion to Change Venue.
• Form 8:70, Notice of Removal (Diversity Action).
• Form 8:71, Notice of Removal (Diversity Action including language for fraudulent joinder argument).
• Form 8:72, Notice of Removal (Federal Question Jurisdiction).
• Form 8:80, Notice of Filing Notice of Removal.
 
 
§8:01 Meaning
§8:02 Distinction: Level of Court Within County
§8:03 Venue in Lower Courts
§8:04 Compare: Forum non Conveniens
 
§8:10 Nature of Jurisdiction
§8:11 Venue Is Not Jurisdictional
§8:12 Special Venue Statutes
 
§8:20 Basic Strategy
§8:21 Home-Turf Advantage
§8:22 Client Convenience
§8:23 Witness Convenience
§8:24 Favorable Precedent in Appellate District
§8:25 Demographics
§8:26 Notoriety
§8:27 Trial Backlog
§8:28 Commercial Divisions
 
§8:40 Motion Generally Required
§8:41 Grounds for Transfer
 
§8:50 Overview
§8:51 Multiple Claims or Parties
 
 
§8:60 Application
§8:61 Residence of Any Plainti or Any Defendant
§8:62 No Resident Party
§8:63 Corporations and Unincorporated Businesses
 
§8:70 Application
§8:71 Article 5 Special Statutes
§8:72 List of Other Special Statutes
 
§8:80 Court’s Discretion
 
 
§8:90 Governing Statute
8-3 Forum Selection: Venue and Removal
§8:91 Time for Determining Residence
§8:92 Meaning of Resides
§8:93 Multiple Residences
§8:94 Facts Showing Residence
§8:95 Facts Not Showing Residence
§8:96 Plainti’s Residence a Sham
2. Representatives and Assignees
§8:110 Personal Representatives
§8:111 Assignees
3. Entities
a. Corporations
§8:120 Governing Statute
§8:121 Domestic Corporations
§8:122 Foreign Corporations
§8:123 Exception: Actual Oce Location
§8:124 Relocation of Oces
§8:125 Professional Corporations
§8:126 Common Carriers
§8:127 Insurance Companies
b. Unincorporated Entities
§8:140 Limited Liability Companies
§8:141 Partnerships and Sole-Proprietorships
§8:142 Professional Practices
§8:143 Unincorporated Associations
D. Consumer Credit Transactions
§8:150 Governing Statute
§8:151 What Is a Consumer Credit Transaction
§8:152 Rejection of Summons for Misplaced Venue
E. Government Entities
1. Counties and Municipalities
§8:160 Application of Governing Statute
§8:161 Actions Against Counties
§8:162 Actions Against Cities, Towns, and Villages
§8:163 Actions Against New York City
§8:164 Actions Against School Districts and District Corporations
§8:165 CPLR 504 Is Mandatory
§8:166 Exception: Third-Party and Nominal Defendants
§8:167 Only County or Municipality May Invoke Statute
§8:168 Waiver
§8:169 No Jurisdictional Eect
2. Public Authorities
§8:180 Governing Statute
§8:181 Exceptions: New York City Transit Authority and Port Authority of New York and
New Jersey
§8:182 Facilities Involved in Action
§8:183 CPLR 505 Is Mandatory
§8:184 Waiver
§8:185 No Jurisdictional Eect
F. Property
1. Real Property Actions
§8:190 Governing Statute
§8:191 What Is and Is Not a Real Property Action
§8:192 CPLR 507 Is Mandatory
§8:193 Waiver

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