AuthorJennifer Duncan-Brice
Def‌initions: A party is a person or entity who is suing or being sued in a lawsuit. Only parties are entitled to participate
directly in the proceedings. Capacity is the right of a person or entity to sue or be sued in its own name. An interpleader
is an action between a party holding property to which it has no claim and two or more parties who claim an interest
in the property. Intervention is the procedure by which a person not named or joined as a party may become a party
to an action. Third-party practice is a method by which a defendant may join parties alleged to be liable for all or part
of the plaintiff’s claim. A respondent in discovery is a person or entity named in a civil action because he or she may
have information essential to determining the identity of who should be named additional defendants.
Scope of Chapter: Capacity and standing to sue; considerations involved in joining additional parties to a lawsuit
under rules of permissive and necessary joinder; Substitution of parties; rules and procedures for interpleading compet-
ing claims to a fund; intervention by parties into a lawsuit already begun by other parties; third party practice; naming
unknown parties; effect of assignment and subrogation; naming respondents in discovery; class actions.
Strategies and Tactics:
Early in the case, evaluate who might be possible plaintiffs and possible defendants in the action.
Research the law concerning the capacity of potential parties, their standing to sue or be sued, etc.
Investigate the status of various parties, their capacity, standing, etc., and whether they are amenable to
service of process in Illinois.
If representing a defendant, investigate whether there are other parties who should be joined as defen-
dants, and whether there are other parties who may be responsible for all or part of plaintiff’s claim.
If an action is already proceeding, determine whether it is in your client’s interest to intervene in the action,
and whether your client is entitled to do so.
If you represent a client who retains property to which some other party is ultimately entitled, determine
whether an interpleader action, with your client as stakeholder, is an appropriate way for your client to
discharge his/her obligations.
Consider whether to name respondents in discovery to ascertain the names of other potential defendants.
If there are multiple potential plaintiffs, consider whether a class action is appropriate.
Statutes and Rules: 735 ILCS 5/2-401, 5/2-402, 5/2-403, 5/2-404, 5/2-406, 5/2-407, 5/2-408, 5/2-409,
5/2-413, 5/2-616, 5/1-801 ff, 5/2-1008; 755 ILCS 5/11, 5/11a.
Related Topics: Pleadings, Ch 13; Motion Practice, Ch 14; Attacking the Pleadings, Ch 15.
Forms: See digital access for the following forms:
Form 12:10, Petition to Appoint a Guardian ad Litem.
Form 12:20, Order Appointing a Guardian ad Litem.
Illinois Pretrial Practice 12-2
Form 12:30, Motion for Leave to Add Additional Parties.
Form 12:40, Order for Leave to Join as Additional Parties.
Form 12:50, Motion for Substitution of a Party.
Form 12:60, Notice of Suggestion of Death of a Party.
Form 12:70, Ex Parte Application for Order Substituting Party.
Form 12:80, Motion of Executor to Be Substituted as Plaintiff.
Form 12:90, Order Substituting Executor as Plaintiff.
Form 12:100, Motion to Appoint a Special Administrator.
Form 12:110, Motion to Dismiss for Failure to Substitute Party After Plaintiff ’s Death.
Form 12:120, Complaint in Interpleader.
Form 12:130, Complaint in Intervention.
Form 12:140, Order Granting Leave to Intervene.
Form 12:150, Motion for Leave to File Third-Party Complaint.
Form 12:160, Order Granting Leave to File Third-Party Complaint.
Form 12:170, Third-Party Complaint.
Form 12:180, Petition to Proceed Under a Fictitious Name.
Form 12:190, Order of Petition to Proceed Under Fictitious Name.
§12:01 Party Def‌ined
§12:02 Typical Parties
A. Preliminary Considerations
§12:10 Capacity
§12:11 Effect of Lack of Capacity
§12:12 Standing
§12:13 Challenging Standing
§12:14 Associational Standing
§12:15 Determination From Statutory Scheme
B. Natural Persons: Death, Minority, Incompetency
1. Death
§12:20 Decedents Lack Capacity
§12:21 Death of Defendant
§12:22 Wrongful Death Actions
2. Minors
§12:30 Minors Lack Capacity
§12:31 Suit by Minor
§12:32 Court Approval Required for Settlement of Claims
§12:33 Appointment of a Guardian Ad Litem
§12:34 Minor as a Defendant
§12:35 Next of Friend, Guardian, Guardian Ad Litem
§12:36 Ability of Guardian Ad Litem to Hire Counsel
§12:37 Successor Guardian
3. Mentally Incompetent Parties
§12:50 Persons Adjudicated Mentally Incompetent Lack Capacity
§12:51 Exception: Dissolution of Marriage
§12:52 Standard for the Appointment of a Guardian
§12:53 Def‌inition of Disabled
§12:54 Appointment of a Guardian Ad Litem
§12:55 Persons Who May Serve as Guardian Ad Litem
§12:56 Settlement By or Against an Incompetent Person Must Be Approved by Court
§12:57 Appointment of a Guardian Ad Litem in the Settlement of a Suit
12-3 Parties
4. Legal Capacit y
§12:58 Notice
§12:59 Factual Issues to Determine Legal Capacity
C. Estates and Trusts
1. Estates
§12:70 Suit Against Estate
§12:71 Suits by Estate
§12:72 Pro Se Representation Prohibited for Decedent’s Estate
2. Trusts
§12:80 Def‌initions
§12:81 Suit on Behalf of Trust
§12:82 The Trust as a Defendant
§12:83 Benef‌iciaries as a Necessary Party
§12:84 Caption
D. Business Entities
1. Corporations
§12:90 Illinois Corporations
§12:91 Representation of Corporations in Small Claims
§12:92 Foreign Corporations
§12:93 Dissolved or Expired Corporation
§12:94 Strict Product Liability Cases When Manufacturer Is a Defendant
2. Partnerships
§12:100 Actions By or Against Partnerships
§12:101 Def‌inition of Partnership
§12:102 Limited Partnership Distinguished
§12:103 Subsequent Actions Against Partners
§12:104 Action Against Fewer Than All Partners
3. Joint Ventures
§12:105 Def‌inition
§12:106 Elements
4. Other Business Entities
§12:110 Voluntary Unincorporated Associations
§12:111 Assumed Business Name Act
§12:112 ERISA Plans
§12:113 Mechnanic’s Liens
5. Master/Agents
§12:115 Actual Agent
§12:116 Apparent Agent
E. Governmental Entities
§12:120 Sovereign Immunity Abolished
§12:121 Municipal Corporations
§12:122 School Districts
F. Challenging Capacity
§12:130 Challenging Legal Capacity to Sue
§12:131 Substitution of a Party With Capacity
A. Advantages and Disadvantages of Joining Parties
1. Advantages
§12:140 Saves Time and Money
§12:141 Avoids Inconsistent Results
§12:142 Provides Additional Litigation Resources
§12:143 Provides Additional Support

To continue reading

Request your trial

VLEX uses login cookies to provide you with a better browsing experience. If you click on 'Accept' or continue browsing this site we consider that you accept our cookie policy. ACCEPT