Digital Knowledge Development: A Competitive Advantage.

Author:Nieto, Elia Socorro Diaz
 
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INTRODUCTION

The Mexican economy continued to expand at a moderate annual growth rate of 2.5% in 2015

(www.bancomundial.org/es/country/mexico). Private consumption was the main engine of economic activity, mainly due to the increase of job creation. Whereas in 1991 only 1% of banking assets in Mexico was foreign-owned, in 2013, 74% of banking assets in Mexico were foreign-owned. In no other country in the world has the ownership by foreign banks been as rapid as in Mexico (Haber, Stephen, Mussachio, & Aldo, 2013).

Goh (2005) conducted a study on the performance of intellectual capital of commercial banks in Malaysia. On the level of efficiency in terms of HCE = VA / HC (efficiency indicator of human capital), CEE = VA / CA (indicator efficiency of capital employed) and SCE = HCE + CEE + SCE (additional value IQ) was measured based on VAIC (additional value of intellectual capital). This method, used and developed by public institutions, was also used in Austria, Croatia and Japan, an indicator that banks identify with the efficient use of capital.

This capital classification, according to VAIC, was compared with the traditional classification strategy, which is based on assets, net profit and fair shareholder value. Banks have relatively higher human capital efficiency and capital efficiency structures. Domestic banks are generally less efficient compared to foreign banks. Hong Leong Bank, Public Bank and Southern Bank are the top three banks, based on effective national assessment and evaluation M, while Scotia Bank is the most efficient foreign bank. There were significant differences between the scores of the banks according to efficiency and traditional accounting measures. Jeffus, Zeltmann, Griffin and Chen (2015) examined mobile payment technologies and what motivates them. While the magnetic electronic strip is being replaced, other technologies are competing for acceptance at the retail level. New technologies and new applications of a specific technology are changing the magnetic strip card. Other new technologies include cloud-based systems, such as PayPal.

The aim of this paper is to identify and describe the elements of intellectual capital of financial institutions in San Juan Del Rio, Mexico. The main question is "what are the elements that integrate intellectual capital in the financial institutions in San Juan del Rio?" The city is second in size after Queretaro, the state capital. The city of San Juan Del Rio has the lowest employment rate nationwide. The financial sector was chosen because it is a sector where the main generation of knowledge is digital and quality of service, intellectual capital and competitiveness of the financial institutions surveyed rely on identifying the daily needs of the clients, generating new solution-ideas and turning them into innovations, all based on digital knowledge (www.beta.inegi.org.mx, 2016) (OCDE) Organization for Cooperation and Economic Development). OECD is based on INEGI ENOE 2005-2014. This quantitative study investigated the elements of intellectual capital that provides competitiveness through surveys of 10 banking institutions located in this city. This study was carried out as a questionnaire consisting of 72 questions using the Likert scale and covering four specific dimensions: digital knowledge management, competitiveness, intellectual capital and organizational culture. It should be mentioned that only one of the Mexican financial institutions is competitive, mainly through the use and development of digital knowledge. All the foreign owned financial institutions used digital technology and are also competitive.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Knowledge Management as Intellectual Capital

Our world has become a world of knowledge. At this time, organizations demand quality and competitiveness. Knowledge is the means to obtain them. Different international organizations, such as the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the Organization of American States (OAS), and various theorists, such as Drucker (quoted inhttp://www.secretariado.una.ac.cr/libro/doc/capl.), assert that the formation of a new type of society is gaining strength: the knowledge society. For organizations in the knowledge society, knowledge has become an element of competitive advantage.

Within this new knowledge society, the management of digital knowledge (defined in http://grupo4herramientasinformatica.blogspot.mx/2015/09/que-es-conocimiento-digital., 2016) acquires great importance, as all the things that can be learned in terms of computer science, ICT and new technologies are currently growing. At first, there was no knowledge of technology; there was no idea of how to define the digital concept. But once it was discovered and implemented in reality, this concept transcended time, achieving today a domain on almost all the planet so that scientific empiric and popular knowledge has increased, which improves the quality of life and presents a new social reality.

The digital universe extends into society and generates new lifestyles and new consumption habits" (Colvee, 2013). Knowledge is an intangible factor and the main element of intellectual capital in organizations, Villarreal (2003) (quoted in Villegas, Hernandez, & Salazar, 2016) pointed out that the elements that characterize the new global economy are the era of Knowledge and brain work (knowledge worker) where intellectual capital has become the strategic factor of the new paradigm of competitiveness. Electronic banking is a product generated by the management of digital knowledge and part of the intellectual capital of financial institutions, where the internet is a new channel to liberate banking services. Depending on the service, financial institutions could provide PCs, modems or software to customers.

Alshawaf (2004) citing Ramos (2004) defined electronic banking as providing information about the bank and its services through a page on the World Wide Web.

Internet banking currently provides customers with transaction services, such as accessing their accounts, the ability to move money between different accounts, making payments or applying for loans and other supplementary services.

Due to great competition in the banking sector, banks have taken a great interest in electronic platforms for the delivery of financial services. The benefits that banks find when adopting electronic banking are listed below:

* Better quality customer service

* Increase in the number of customers

* Increase in profits

* Ability to reach a wider market

* Costs reduction

* Ability to collect customer information

* Improve the use of technological resources

* Improve business processes

* Better relationships with customers and suppliers

* Improve the profile of the organization

* Fast delivery of products and services

* Reduction of errors

The opportunities of banks related to financial products are dynamic products.

Financial products: These can be managed in a more fluid way. For example, customers can change the attributes of their credit cards via the Internet or they can move their money from one financial product to another, to compensate a debit balance with one creditor. Custom websites and aggregation.

Aggregation accounts: These are defined as a collection of information from different online sources to be displayed on a single screen. The information presented to the client may refer to their bank accounts, savings accounts, credit details, their investment portfolio, personalized services and email. The differentiation of financial products like accounts, credit and debit cards have little difference in terms of costs. However financial institutions try to differentiate these products through the added value of...

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