Criminal Justice Review
- Sage Publications, Inc.
- Publication date:
- Nbr. 46-4, December 2021
- Nbr. 46-3, September 2021
- Nbr. 46-2, June 2021
- Nbr. 46-1, March 2021
- Nbr. 45-4, December 2020
- Nbr. 45-3, September 2020
- Nbr. 45-2, June 2020
- Nbr. 45-1, March 2020
- Nbr. 44-4, December 2019
- Nbr. 44-3, September 2019
- Nbr. 44-2, June 2019
- Nbr. 44-1, March 2019
- Nbr. 43-4, December 2018
- Nbr. 43-3, September 2018
- Nbr. 43-2, June 2018
- Nbr. 43-1, March 2018
- Nbr. 42-4, December 2017
- Nbr. 42-3, September 2017
- Nbr. 42-2, June 2017
- Nbr. 42-1, March 2017
- Juvenile Criminality: Evidence From Prisoners in Two Brazilian States
The aim of this article is to identify the socioeconomic context that can influence young peoples’ decision to engage in crime. The sample is composed of youngsters (aged between 18 and 23 years old) convicted or detained in an interim regime accused of property crimes, serving a sentence in Brazilian prison units. A survey with 302 respondents was conducted in Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul states. Logistic regression models reveal that a young people’s family composition, use a firearm, be motivated by the idea of easy gain, have a favorable attitude toward drug legalization, and consume alcohol—all factors contribute to an increased probability of the young person engage in crime. This article finalizes with a discussion of the results and policy implications.
- Lethal Violence in Brazil: A Systematic Review of Portuguese-Language Literature From 2000 to 2020
Reviewing national literature on homicides in Brazil, this article explores questions that relate to the nature, trends, determinants, and impact of these crimes on society, as well as interventions to combat this type of violence. The article contributes to the international literature by reviewing and critically discussing a sample of 112 theses on homicides from the Portuguese-language literature using the Brazilian Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations from 2000 to 2020. Highlighting an issue that primarily affects young, poor Black men, the article helps advocate for a better understanding of other types of lethal violence that affect women, LGBQTI and other minorities. The article calls for a better understanding of the role of the state, the police and other criminal justice actors as generators and/or controllers of violence, as well as the need for other perspectives on homicide prevention, which include the microsituational aspects of killing, organized crime, and interaction between the individual and the environment.
- The Weight of Fear of Violence in Household Budgets
This article investigates the relationship between the perception of violence and the spending on security goods and services in households. Individual microdata from a random national survey on family budget carried out in Brazil in 2008-2009 were used for modeling the household spending using two instrumental variables. The stability of results was checked by applying the Lasso-Gaussian regularization method in the selection of the statistically significant variables. Positive relationships were found between household spending on security goods and services and (i) the fear of insecurity at the household level, (ii) the neighbors’ spending on security, and (iii) the registered criminality, but no evidence was found on the relationship between the role of police on household spending on security goods and services.
- Brazilian Evidence on Tax Evasion and Enforcement: A Case Study of Global North–South Comparison
This study investigates the differences observed in the rate of tax evasion between the Global North and South countries, with special focus on Brazil, by comparing key parameters of their tax systems, namely, tax burden, audit cost, and fines. This is achieved by extending and applying Graetz, Reinganun, and Wilde’s model using data from tax authorities from European and Latin American countries, which produced parameters that are used for Bayesian games. The results show that tax evasion is directly associated with tax burden and audit cost, but the effect of fines is unclear. Overall, findings pointed to shortcomings in the tax system of Latin American countries that create the avenue for high tax evasion.
- Special Issue—Contemporary Issues in Brazilian Criminology
This special issue features seven articles among those presented at the workshop “Crime and Perceived Safety in Brazil” (Crime e Percepção de Segurança in Brazil) in Campinas, Brazil, in December 2019. The special issue reflects an array of themes of contemporary criminology in Brazil, from homicides and corruption to fear of crime and crime prevention. This special issue reflects the interdisciplinary character of the workshop with participating researchers from several Brazilian universities. For a selection of other articles from this workshop, see the second special issue to be published in the Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice in 2022.
- CJR Publications Received
- Concentration of Urban Violence in Fortaleza and Strategies for Crime Prevention
Despite the continued prevalence of violence in Latin America, there is a relative dearth of research investigating both spatial patterns of violent crimes and the effectiveness of evidence-based crime prevention policies in Brazil. This study aims to address this gap in extant knowledge by creating a Spatial Violence Index and a Restrictive Ambient Index to investigate the spatial dynamics of violent crimes and urban vulnerabilities in Fortaleza. Both exploratory spatial data analysis and spatial regression models were employed to visualize the associative patterns and measure the correlation between the two indexes. The results demonstrate how locations characterized by high levels of violence are spatially correlated with more vulnerable locations in terms of both socio-economic-demographics and urban disorder. Overall, the study identified 124 vulnerable micro-territories that would benefit from the allocation of resources in an effort to reduce violence in the city by enhancing the efficiency of policing and prevention strategies.
- Assessing the Impact of Public Policy on Homicide Rates in Brazil: The Case of PRONASCI Program
The current study evaluates the impact of the National Public Security with Citizenship Program (PRONASCI) on the homicide rate in Brazilian municipalities. PRONASCI program was implemented in Brazilian metropolitan regions and urban territories with high violent crime rates in 2007. In this study, we have applied a spatial difference-in-differences model with matching approaches. Municipalities that did not receive funds from the program made up the control group. We found that the program was inefficient to reduce the homicide rate in all of the municipalities that had received funds from it, compared to those that had not, even considering their potential spatial spillover effects. This result was expected due to the program complexity, in particular due to its ineffective management and the resistance from municipalities to change with the program.
- The Idea of Corporate Transitional Justice: Paths to Corporate Criminology in Brazil
The essay aims to exam corporate complicity with authoritarian regimes of the past and contemporary practices for the purposes of developing the body of corporate criminology. The opening of Brazilian criminological research to the role of companies during the military regime shines new lights on corporate accountability and may, when investigating the corporate complicity with authoritarian dynamics, also open new avenues for the transitional justice studies. Especially with regard to the idea of Corporate Transitional Justice, it assumes the need for broader debates about the historical continuum and different forms of business contributions and aspects of harming and victimizing in the corporate field.
- Book Review: Sentencing and modern reform: The process of punishment
- Assessing the Differential Impact of Vacancy on Criminal Violence in the City of St. Louis, MO
This study employs risk terrain modeling to identify the spatial correlates of aggravated assault and homicide in St. Louis, MO. We build upon the empirical literature by (1) replicating recent research examining the role of vacancy in the concentration of criminal violence and (2) examining...
- MAOA, Drug Selling, and Violent Victimization
Involvement in drug markets is a significant risk factor for criminal victimization. Separately, the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene has been identified as correlating with risky and antisocial behaviors and moderating the effects of environmental risk factors on antisocial behaviors. Using a...
- Perpetrators at First, Victims at Last: Exploring the Consequences of Stigmatization on Ex-Convicts’ Mental Well-Being
The article investigates ex-convicts’ experiences of stigmatization and its effect on their well-being in selected prisons in Ghana. Qualitative data were collected from 20 male inmates who, after residing for a time in the community, were thereafter reincarcerated. Findings indicate that these men ...
- The Racial Politics of Due Process Protection
Discoveries of wrongful convictions have increased substantially over the last several decades. During this period, practitioners and scholars have been advocating for the adoption of policies aimed at reducing the likelihood of convicting a person for a crime they did not commit. Implementing such ...
- Prison Inmates’ Right to Hunger Strike
Hunger strikes have long been used as a means of protest, as a last resort, especially by those in prison. Recently, government officials have responded to hunger strikes with force-feeding, an approach that has generated considerable international attention. The purpose of this article is to...
- Juvenile Criminality: Evidence From Prisoners in Two Brazilian States
The aim of this article is to identify the socioeconomic context that can influence young peoples’ decision to engage in crime. The sample is composed of youngsters (aged between 18 and 23 years old) convicted or detained in an interim regime accused of property crimes, serving a sentence in...
- The Use of Life and Death as Tools in Plea Bargaining
Given its severity, the death penalty may play a unique role in plea bargaining, unlike that of a lesser maximum sentence of life without parole, which involves the defendant’s loss of his freedom but not the loss of his life. The possibility of a death sentence may be powerful incentive for the...
- LGBTQ Student Victimization and Its Relationship to School Discipline and Justice System Involvement
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) students experience higher rates of school-based victimization than their peers, and this victimization contributes to higher risk of suicide, substance misuse, mental disorder, and unsafe sexual experiences. In addition, these experiences may...
- Police Body-Worn Cameras: Development of the Perceived Intensity of Monitoring Scale
Body-worn cameras (BWCs) are the latest and perhaps most tangible answer to complex social questions regarding the use of force, state legitimacy, and the proper role of police in a liberal democracy. How do officers experience heightened monitoring? This article pursues two objectives via two...
- The Interaction Between Self-Control and Perceived Sanction Risk: An Analysis From the Viewpoint of Different Theories
The present article studies the interplay of self-control and perceived sanction risk in crime causation. Several hypotheses are formulated. The General Theory of Crime suggests that sanction certainty effects are greater for individuals of high self-control. Their inability to devote thought to...