Book Review: Cyber mercenaries: The state, hackers, and power

Published date01 September 2023
DOIhttp://doi.org/10.1177/0734016820912303
AuthorCostantino Grasso
Date01 September 2023
Subject MatterBook Reviews
In the next section, Hoskins evaluates the justication of collateral legal consequences as civil
measures. He asserts in this section that a general case should be made against the justication of
collateral legal consequences as civil measures. Hoskins argues that we should treat offenders
who nish their punishment as having paid their debt to society and therefore should not be subjected
to additional burdensome measures. Instrumental and noninstrumental arguments for the use of col-
lateral legal consequences as civil measures are then discussed. According to Hoskins, noninstru-
mental arguments, that collateral legal consequences are appropriate responses to criminal
wrongdoing, are not persuasive as they do not provide adequate justication for why they are intrin-
sically appropriate. As for instrumental arguments (i.e., risk-reductive measures), Hoskins concludes
that some measures may be justied with this argument, so long as they meet the criteria that they
serve a morally compelling interest, they represent the least burdensome alternative, and they do
not result in offsetting negative consequences.
The last section of the book examines the practical implications of the existence of collateral legal
consequences. Hoskins rst begins by arguing that the use of burdensome legal measures necessities
the informing of defendants of the collateral legal consequences they are subject to, before entering a
guilty plea. He argues that this burden should fall on prosecutors rather than defense attorneys. While
Hoskins provides a compelling argument for why defendants should be informed of the collateral
legal consequences they face, his position that this burden should fall on prosecutors is far less com-
pelling and leaves the reader questioning the practical implications of his proposition. He then con-
cludes by arguing that the existence of collateral legal consequences has implications for the issue of
criminalization and warrants greater philosophical consideration.
Beyond Punishment? A Normative Account of the Collateral Legal Consequences of Conviction is
a compelling analysis of the moral justications for collateral legal consequences. Hoskins provides a
critical examination of how collateral legal consequences should be evaluated and provides the
reader with the necessary philosophical guidebook to evaluate them. Hoskins does not provide
blanket statements for all collateral legal consequences and does not contend that all of these mea-
sures are unjustied, rather he provides the tools to critically assess individual burdensome legal
measures. Beyond Punishment? A Normative Account of the Collateral Legal Consequences of
Conviction is a must-read for those interested in policy reform, including academics, students, and
policy makers.
ORCID iD
Samantha Luna https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5607-4824
Maurer, T. (2018).
Cyber mercenaries: The state, hackers, and power. Cambridge University Press. 246 pp. $29.99, ISBN
9781107566866.
Reviewed by: Costantino Grasso ,Coventry University, United Kingdom
DOI: 10.1177/0734016820912303
The author of this bookTim Maureris an expert on cybersecurity, tech policy, and geopolitics in
the digital age. He is the author of various publications in the area of cyber and digital policy, and his
articles have been published by mainstream media and in peer-reviewed academic journals.
Cyber Mercenaries is a fascinating book where the author makes a foray into the area of cyber
politics, an area that has not been investigated extensively so far. Specically, Maurer offers a
Book Reviews 409

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