An applied local wisdom to manage water for developing riverside community: a case study of the Lam Ta Kong river basin.

Author:Kongsat, Surapong
 
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INTRODUCTION

Nowadays integrated water resource management is an effective solution to solve the water resource problems and to manage available water in order to improve human life. The combination between local wisdom and modern technology by farmer participation is a main part of integrated management. The mentioned techniques have been being applied for human life in the northeast region of Thailand. Also, water resource management is a basically factor of human living since the past to present. It is an important fundamental that is producing the riches on natural resources to the living things in the world. The water resource management in the river basin is to allocate water to land area for using purpose (1), (2), (3). In the present, the water resource management is a resource of difficult for finding inside of demand and more requirements. The water management is the most important matter in many countries and paid more attention to the water resource management which were differed such as the watering management of USA is under the central government and States government and in China where it is under the responsibility of the National Government, but the management responsibility and the basin maintenance is under the government (4). In the past of the water resource management in Thailand was duty of the government and Thailand's main water management institute is a Department of Irrigation. But it had faced to build the dam because it is affected the environment. Therefore, the official government who ever had a duty to arrange the water turned into the water allocated (5). In addition, there is also the community wisdom such as reservoir or irrigation channel wide spread in the north and northeastern region as well.

Nakorn Ratchasima province, Thailand had grown in the economic and social quite high, especially by Lam Ta Kong River Basin where it is six large communities that they are around the area of Lam Ta Kong River flowing through Moon River Basin and recently faced the problem that was lack of water management (6). In the past the water has been used of agriculture sector and Muang Nakhorn ratchasima municipal for public utility. When the community expanded and social activity increased, the water resource in Lam Ta Kong had been more used on every sector. However, there is the invulnerability with an original community on the water resource management and the water quantity sufficient toward the living earning of Lam Ta Kong community is a "Local wisdom" (7).

The past of local wisdom for management the water resource of Lam Ta Kong Basin community had depended on the pump up and irrigated from Lam Ta Kong river and Lam Ta Kong reservoir for the necessaries of life, agriculture, family industrial as a local simple thought, for instance, building an earth ditch, wells, a dam for irrigation purpose, irrigation channel, bilge water and shallow wells. The later technology was water pump but presently some types are not in used. Therefore, if the local wisdom on the water management especially the waterwheel is promoted and to be used in the Lam Ta Kong River Basin's water state during in needed, the basin deterioration, pollution and the environment is destroyed, the social contradiction happening. It is because of a high quantity water requirement from Lam Ta Kong will reduce these problems. It is due to a low cost of the local wisdom, no pollution, a good effect that is economized and sufficient to every community.

This study thus the local wisdom of water resource management and an applied the local wisdom to manage water resource for developing the economic, society and culture of Lam Ta Kong's community, Nakhorn Ratchasima province, Thailand (the Northeast Region of Thailand).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study Area: The area of research was Lam Ta Kong River Basin, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand (Fig. 1). The basin had covered the area of community to 3,874 square...

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