Malaysia is a prosperous rapidly growing country with high private vehicle ownership automobile and only approximately of urban travel is by public transport. In order to make restraint on private transport politically feasible, public transports have to be greatly improved. The increasing number of car users involved in crashes and the associated injury has prompted the government of Malaysia to undertake various studies to address the problem. One of these studies was the shift of transportation mode from private car to public transportation (Bus and Train) in Malaysia(1). The study targeted to evaluate policies and strategies than can help to formulate, model shift of transportation mode from private car to public transportation in Malaysia, to formulate the modelling of possible model shift from private car to public transportation and to predict the future model shift. The current paper is a part of the research that has focused on model shift initiatives. These initiatives focused on shifting car users to safer modes of transport in order to increase road safety and enhance road environment. To date, many cities have attempted to restrict the use of private cars in favour of public transport(2) Such policies exist in France (3), Germany(4), Britain(2-3), Netherlands(5-6), Romania(7), Australia(8), Asian countries(9-10), and Canada (11). The attempts have been by changing the public perception to it. This research bridges the gap so that appropriate Modal Shift could be implemented. This study explores the differences in the characteristics of bus, train and car use, specifically in testing the hypotheses as to whether car users have outperformed buses and train in relation to key characteristics especially travel times and costs. A binary legit model was used to identify factors that are significant in determining the choice of transport and to predict the probability of a change in bus and train rider ship with respect to various travel times and cost.
In order to address the objective of this study, questionnaires1 study was carried out in selected urban environments of the Kuala Lumpur City Centre area to determine reasons for travellers mode choice from among three transport modes: private cars, bus and train. The survey was carried in a selected corridor in Kuala Lumpur city centre where there was high car ownership and use, and public transport (bus and rail) available. A total of 1350 questionnaires were collected over a period of 6 months from (1March to 1 September 2005). The questions addressing car, bus and train users were addressed contained only in the revealed preference survey and pertained to demographic, socioeconomic characteristics and mode attributes. The respondents were requested to report their current travel situation by answering a set of questions. These questions were categorized into: (1) Questions on respondent's current travel modes and associated
University Kebangsaan Malaysia, 3600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysiaattributes such as current travel mode available to the respondent, his/her current travel mode and associated travel time, cost, and access approach. The respondents were encouraged to report information on other travel mode attribute values. (2) Traveller's personal information relating to travel mode choice such as age, income, gender, occupation, education, total number of household members, and number of vehicle ownership in the household. Some of the questions in this section were categorized. For instance, the income of respondents consisted of five levels with equal intervals. For car users, the questionnaire addressed both revealed and stated preferences. The survey information included socio-economic characteristics of individuals, trip information of individuals, and attitudes and perceptions on travel and policy measures. Socio-economic information included household income, individual's income, age, gender, vehicle ownership, and total number of members in household, occupation and education level. Trip information of individuals included the purpose of the trip, mode of travel, total travel time and travel cost etc. A multinomial logit model was developed for three alternatives namely, bus, train and car, with the aim of comparing the utility of these travel modes and to identify the factors that would influence car users to move from traveling by car to choosing the public transport alternative. The explanatory variables were: age, gender, income, travel time, travel cost and car ownership. Some of the explanatory variables such as age, income per month and gender were categorized. For instance, the income was categorized as; 4001 (1USD = RM3.65) while gender was categorized as 0...