Block in volleyball with the help of bodily communication.

Author:Raiola, Gaetano


Volleyball is a sport where the use of body language is very frequent, it is a sport with very narrow game space (81 square meters per team) and actions extremely rapid and dynamic, whose technical characteristics, tactics and logistics constantly implies non-verbal communication among the players of the same team and of the opposite team. The players, through perceptive and intuitive processing, decode the signs (Argyle, 1988), gestures and facial expressions of team-mates and/or of opponents in a few thousandths of a millisecond through the anticipation and interpretation of the consequences of the actions (Hall, 1966), ours own or others, confirming the proactive role of the brain that is not restricted to acquire all sensory events of the world, while it interrogates the world according to its conditions in order to predict and anticipate behavior, adjusting the sensitivity, combining messages, pre-specific and values estimated, according to an internal simulation of the expected consequences of the action (Berthoz, 2000). In particular, the decoding of signs or of facial expressions is "functional" when it refers to the same team and when communication among players is involved or that between the trainer and the athletes on the tactical intentions, strategies and the problems of the game. Decoding can be "diagnostic" when it is possible to recognize the diverse forms of non-verbal communication of the opposing team, through signs and elements that characterize the communication styles (Argyle, 1988; Hall, 1966) of athletes and coach. The third form of decoding is "tactics" when the gesture or the action simulates a game intention to solicit a reaction of the adversary who helps his own team because, in the process of observation, the sensory information is encoded as motor acts and our motor system is activated as if we carry out actions that we observe, involving the simulation of the same and making possible that 'reciprocity' of acts and intentions which is basic for the immediate recognition by us of the meaning of the gesture of others "as soon as" we see someone to perform an act or a chain of acts, its movements, which it wants to or not, it gets an immediate meaning for the observer. The system of mirror neurons and the selectivity of their answers determines a shared action space (Iacoboni, 2008), where every act and every chain of acts, our's own or others, are immediately written and understood, without any express or deliberate learning process " (Rizzolatti and Sinigaglia, 2006). Bodily communication can be helped by performance analysis method and technological system.

Performance analysis for very complex performances in technical disciplines is complicated. The first analysts have traditionally focused on team and match-play sports and various techniques have been effectively used to collect and analyze data in these sports (Hughes and Bartlett, 2002). However, there is no evidence in the literature of computerized real-time analysis used in rhythmic gymnastics and other type of sports with movement composition. Second, the time cost to obtain the necessary quantitative data from video digitization is so high that the advantages of immediate feedback are not available to the athlete and to the coach.To facilitate the immediate...

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