SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT LAW & POLICY69
J. 298, 299 (2003).
8 See John R. Hibb ing & Elizabeth Theiss-Mors e, Civics Is Not E nough:
Teaching Barbarics in K-12, 29 pol. Sci. & pol. 57, 57-62 (1996) (arguing that
American students “lack the most rudimentary back ground information” about
9 See putnam, supra note 3, at 25, 129 (arguing that members of “Generation
X” are less civically engaged than previous generations as evidenced by their
10 See Checkoway et al., supra note 7, at 299 (arguing that cities are expanding
services to assist youth).
12 Id. at 299-300 (asserting that journalists, social scientists, and social work-
ers’ assistance weakens minority children’s ability to help and empower them-
15 eDith brown weiSS, in FairneSS to Future generationS 17 (1998).
16 See id. at 47, 50 (explaining the nature of human’s “planetary obligations”
to “conserve diversity, quality, and access” to global resources).
17 Id. at 165.
18 See id. at 21 (arguing for obligations shared among and within generations
in using the earth’s “natural and cultural resources”).
19 Id. at 23.
20 Paul A. Barresi, Beyond Fairness to Future Generations: An Intragenera-
tional Alternative to Intergenerational Equity in the International Environmen-
tal Arena, 11 tul. envtl. l.J. 59, 69 (1997).
21 Id. at 70-71.
23 Camille Passon et al., Implications of Adolescents’ Perceptions and Values
for Planning and Design, 28 J. plan. eDuc. & reS. 73, 74 (2008).
24 See Checkoway et al., supra note 7, at 300, 306 (explaining how empowered
community members, rather than social workers, are the most effective at help-
ing at-risk members of their communities).
25 See van Vliet, supra note 5, at 459 (explaining that ofﬁcials have consis-
tently, if not completely effectively, attempted to improve the conditions that
urban youth grow up in); Passon et al., supra note 24, at 74-75 (noting that
urban planning “usually centers on the need to protect children from real and
26 See Suburban Sprawl: culture, theory, anD politicS xviii (Matthew J.
Lindstrom & Hugh Bartling eds., 2003) (outlining the use of child safety as
a constitutional basis for the restriction of private property rights to promote
the development of urban zoning); see generally, Robert E. Lang & Karen A.
Danielson, Gated Communities in America: Walling Out the World?, 8 houSing
pol’y Debate 867 (1997), available at http://content.knowledgeplex.org/kp2/
img/cache/documents/2104.pdf (positing that gated communities lead to alien-
ation from local school districts).
27 See Karen Malone, Children, Youth, and Sustainable Cities, 6 loc. env’t 5,
6-7 (2001) (arguing that excessively regulated public spaces retard children’s
social maturation and diminish “the integrity of the social, economic, and envi-
28 See id.
29 aipc coDe oF ethicS anD proFeSSional conDuct, am. plan. aSS’n, (revised
Oct. 3, 2009), http://www.planning.org/ethics/ethicscode.htm.
31 Kathryn I. Frank, The Potential of Youth Participation in Planning, 20 J.
plan. literature 351, 360 (2006).
32 See Malone, supra note 27, at 6.
33 See van Vliet, supra note 5, at 458 (asserting that parents prefer to raise their
children in “suburban settings”).
34 Passon et al., supra note 23, at 73.
35 growing up in citieS 1 (Kevin Lynch ed., 1977).
37 See, e.g., id. at 1-2; Karen Malone, Growing Up in Cities as a Model of Par-
ticipatory Planning and ‘Place-Making’ with Young People, 18 youth StuD.
auStl., June 1999, at 17; Jeff Bishop, An Unrecognized Legacy – Children, the
Environment and Kevin Lynch, 2 chilD. env’tS q., Fall 1985, at 7.
38 See growing up in citieS, supra note 35 at 57-58.
39 E.g., Louise Chawla, Putting Young Old Ideas into Action: The Relevance of
Growing Up in Cities to Local Agenda 21, 6 loc. env’t 13, 16-17 (2001).
40 See Malone, supra note 27, at 7 (noting that recently “[t]he connection
between children’s rights and sustainable development has been formally
articulated in a number of global declarations.”).
41 Id. (citing U.N. World Comm’n on Env’t and Dev., Our Common Future,
U.N. Doc. A/42/427 (Mar. 20, 1987)).
42 Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child, League of Nations Doc.
O.J. Spec. Supp. 21, at 43 (1924), available at http://www.umn.edu/humanrts/
43 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, G.A. Res. 217 (III) A, art. 25(2),
U.N. Doc. A/RES/217(III), (Dec. 10, 1948), available at http://www.udhr.org/
44 Cleveland Ferguson III, Of Politics and Policy: Can the U.S. Maintain its
Credibility Abroad While Ignoring the Needs of its Children at Home? – Revis-
iting the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child as a Transnational Frame-
work for Local Governing, 14 tulSa J. comp. & int’l l. 191, 228 (2007).
45 Id. at 226-27.
46 World Summit for Children, Sept. 29-30, 1990, New Plan of Action for
Implementing the World Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Develop-
ment of Children in the 1990s, (Sept. 30, 1990), available at http://www.unicef.
47 United Nations Conference on Environment & Development, Rio de
Janiero, Braz., June 3-14, 1992, Rio Declaration on Environment and Develop-
ment, U.N. Doc. A/CONF.151/26 (Vol. I) (Aug. 12, 1992), available at http://
www.un.org/documents/ga/conf151/aconf15126-1annex1.htm (proclaiming that
“[t]he creativity, ideals, and courage of the youth of the world should be mobi-
lized to forge a global partnership in order to achieve sustainable development
and ensure a better future for all”).
48 United Nations Conference on Environment & Development, Rio de
Janiero, Braz., June 3-14, 1992, Agenda 21 § III ch. 25, U.N. Doc. A/
CONF.151/5/Rev.1 (Aug. 12, 1992), available at http://www.un.org/esa/dsd/
agenda21/ (promoting the active participation of youth “in the protection of the
environment and the promotion of economic and social development”).
49 Malone, supra note 27, at 8.
50 See id.
51 See id. (noting that local governments should consider not only the needs
of children in sustainable development, but also how children may effectively
participate in the policy planning).
52 ResourcesZine, am. plan. aSS’n, http://www.planning.org/resourceszine/
(last visited October 18, 2010).
53 See id.
54 See, e.g., Sandrine Depeau, Urban Identities and Social Interaction: A
Cross-Cultural Analysis of Young People’s Spatial Mobility in Paris, France,
and Frankston, Australia, 6 loc. env’t 81, 81 (2001).
55 See, e.g., Paul Tranter & Eric Pawson, Children’s Access to Local Envi-
ronments: A Case-Study of Christchurch, New Zealand, 6 loc. env’t 27, 27
56 See, e.g., Emily Talen & Mary Cofﬁndaffer, The Utopianism of Children:
An Empirical Study of Children’s Neighborhood Design Preferences, 18 J.
plan. eDuc. & reS. 321, 321 (1999).
57 See, e.g., Myrna Margulies Breitbart, Banners for the Street: Reclaiming
Space and Designing Change with Urban Youth, 15 J. plan. eDuc. & reS. 35,
35-36 (1995); Ilaria Salvadori, “Remove a Fence, Invite Chaos”: Children as
Active Agents of Change, 6 loc. env’t 87, 88-89 (2001); Suzanne Speak, Chil-
dren in Urban Regeneration: Foundations for Sustainable Participation, 35
cmty. Dev. J. 31, 31-32 (2000).
58 See Elizabeth M. Rocha, A Ladder of Empowerment, 17 J. oF plan. eDuc. &
reS. 31, 37 (1997).
59 See Sherry R. Arnstein, A Ladder of Citizen Participation, 35 J. am. inSt.
plan. 216, 216 (1969) (describing citizen participation in government as “a
60 See Frank, supra note 31, at 355, 359.
61 roger a. hart, chilDren’S participation 42-45 (1997).
62 See Frank, supra note 31, at 369 (arguing that youth should participate in
projects that are “win-win-win” for “planners, youth, and the community”).
63 See Arnstein, supra note 59, at 217, 223.
64 See Dawn Jourdan, Enhancing HOPE VI Revitalization Processes with Par-
ticipation, 39 J. cmty. Dev. Soc’y 75 (2008) [hereinafter Jourdan, Enhancing
HOPE VI]; Dawn Jourdan, Reducing Pre-Relocation Grief with Participation
in a HOPE VI Grant Application Process, 2 int’l J. pub. participation 42, 43
(2008) [hereinafter Jourdan, Reducing Pre-Relocation Grief].
65 The HOPE VI program was adopted by Congress in the early 1990s after
the results of a Congressional study revealed that a signiﬁcant portion of the
nation’s public housing infrastructure was “severely distressed.” See Jourdan,
Reducing Pre-Relocation Grief, supra note 64, at 45-46.
66 See id. at 53.