Chapter IV. Treaties concerning international law concluded under the auspices of the United Nations and related intergovernmental organizations



A. Treaties concerning international law concluded under the auspices of the United Nations


    Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants

    The Parties to this Convention, Recognizing that persistent organic pollutants possess toxic properties, resist  degradation, bioaccumulate and are transported, through air, water and migratory  species,  across  international  boundaries  and  deposited  far  from  their  place  of  release, where they accumulate in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems,

    Aware of the health concerns, especially in developing countries, resulting from  local exposure to persistent organic pollutants, in particular impacts upon women  and, through them, upon future generations,

    Acknowledging  that  the  Arctic  ecosystems  and  indigenous  communities  are  particularly at risk because of the biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants and that contamination of their traditional foods is a public health issue,

    Conscious of the need for global action on persistent organic pollutants, Mindful of decision 19/13 C of 7 February 1997 of the Governing Council of  the United Nations Environment Programme to initiate international action to protect human health and the environment through measures which will reduce and/or  eliminate emissions and discharges of persistent organic pollutants,

    Recalling the pertinent provisions of the relevant international environmental  conventions, especially the Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent  Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade,  and the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal, including the regional agreements developed within  the framework of its article 11,

    Recalling also the pertinent provisions of the Rio Declaration on Environment  and Development and Agenda 21,

    Acknowledging that precaution underlies the concerns of all the Parties and is  embedded within this Convention,

    Recognizing  that  this  Convention  and  other  international  agreements  in  the  field of trade and the environment are mutually supportive,

    Reaffirming  that  States  have,  in  accordance  with  the  Charter  of  the  United  Nations and the principles of international law, the sovereign right to exploit their  own  resources  pursuant  to  their  own  environmental  and  developmental  policies,  and the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do  not cause damage to the environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits  of national jurisdiction,

    Taking into account the circumstances and particular requirements of developing countries, in particular the least developed among them, and countries with  economies in transition, especially the need to strengthen their national capabilities  for the management of chemicals, including through the transfer of technology, the  provision of financial and technical assistance and the promotion of cooperation among the Parties,

    Taking full account of  the  Programme  of  Action  for  the  Sustainable  Development of Small Island Developing States, adopted in Barbados on 6 May 1994,

    Noting the respective capabilities of developed and developing countries, as  well as the common but differentiated responsibilities of States as set forth in principle 7 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development,

    Recognizing  the  important  contribution  that  the  private  sector  and  non governmental organizations can make to achieving the reduction and/or elimination  of emissions and discharges of persistent organic pollutants,

    Underlining the importance of manufacturers of persistent organic pollutants  taking responsibility for reducing adverse effects caused by their products and for  providing information to users, Governments and the public on the hazardous properties of those chemicals,

    Conscious of the need to take measures to prevent adverse effects caused by  persistent organic pollutants at all stages of their life cycle,

    Reaffirming principle 16 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, which states that national authorities should endeavour to promote the internalization of environmental costs and the use of economic instruments, taking  into  account  the  approach  that  the  polluter  should,  in  principle,  bear  the  cost  of  pollution, with due regard to the public interest and without distorting international  trade and investment,

    Encouraging Parties not having regulatory and assessment schemes for pesticides and industrial chemicals to develop such schemes,

    Recognizing the importance of developing and using environmentally sound  alternative processes and chemicals,

    Determined  to  protect  human  health  and  the  environment  from  the  harmful  impacts of persistent organic pollutants,

    Have agreed as follows:

    Article 1


    Mindful of the precautionary approach as set forth in Principle 15 of the Rio  Declaration on Environment and Development, the objective of this Convention is  to protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants.

    Article 2


    For the purposes of this Convention: (a)  “Party” means a State or regional economic integration organization that has  consented to be bound by this Convention and for which the Convention is in force;

    (b)  “Regional  economic  integration  organization”  means  an  organization  constituted by sovereign States of a given region to which its member States have  transferred competence in respect of matters governed by this Convention and which  has been duly authorized, in accordance with its internal procedures, to sign, ratify,  accept, approve or accede to this Convention;

    (c) “Parties present and voting” means Parties present and casting an affirmative or negative vote.

    Article 3

    Measures tO reDuce Or eliMinate releases frOM intentiOnal prODuctiOn anD use

  2.   Each Party shall: (a)  Prohibit and/or take the legal and administrative measures necessary to  eliminate:   (i)  Its production and use of the chemicals listed in annex A subject to the  provisions of that annex; and   (ii)  Its import and export of the chemicals listed in annex A in accordance  with the provisions of paragraph 2; and (b)  Restrict its production and use of the chemicals listed in annex B in  accordance with the provisions of that annex.

  3.   Each Party shall take measures to ensure: (a)  That a chemical listed in annex A or annex B is imported only:   (i)  For the purpose of environmentally sound disposal as set forth in paragraph 1 (d) of article 6; or   (ii)  For a use or purpose which is permitted for that Party under annex A or  annex B;

    (b) That a chemical listed in annex A for which any production or use specific exemption is in effect or a chemical listed in annex B for which any production or  use specific exemption or acceptable purpose is in effect, taking into account any relevant provisions in existing international prior informed consent instruments, is  exported only:   (i)  For the purpose of environmentally sound disposal as set forth in paragraph 1 (d) of article 6;   (ii)  To  a  Party  which  is  permitted  to  use  that  chemical  under  annex  A  or  annex B; or   (iii)  To a State not party to this Convention which has provided an annual  certification to the exporting Party. Such certification shall specify the intended use of the chemical and include a statement that, with respect to  that chemical, the importing State is committed to:

    a.  Protect human health and the environment by taking the necessary  measures to minimize or prevent releases;

    b.  Comply with the provisions of paragraph 1 of article 6; and

    c.  Comply, where appropriate, with the provisions of paragraph 2 of  part II of annex B.

    The certification shall also include any appropriate supporting documentation,  such  as  legislation,  regulatory  instruments  or  administrative  or  policy guidelines. The exporting Party shall transmit the certification to the Secretariat within sixty days of receipt;

    (c) That a chemical listed in annex A, for which production and use specific exemptions are no longer in effect for any Party, is not exported from it except for  the  purpose  of  environmentally  sound  disposal  as  set  forth  in  paragraph  1  (d)  of  article 6;

    (d)  For the purposes of this paragraph, the term “State not party to this Convention” shall include, with respect to a particular chemical, a State or regional economic integration organization that has not agreed to be bound by the Convention  with respect to that chemical.

  4.   Each Party that has one or more regulatory and assessment schemes for  new pesticides or new industrial chemicals shall take measures to regulate with the  aim of preventing the production and use of new pesticides or new industrial chemicals which, taking into consideration the criteria in paragraph 1 of annex D, exhibit  the characteristics of persistent organic pollutants.

  5.   Each Party that has one or more regulatory and assessment schemes for  pesticides or industrial chemicals shall, where appropriate, take into consideration  within these schemes the criteria in paragraph 1 of annex D when conducting assessments of pesticides or industrial chemicals currently in use.

  6.   Except as otherwise provided in this Convention, paragraphs 1 and 2 shall  not apply to quantities of a chemical to be used for laboratory-scale research or as  a reference standard.

  7. Any Party that has a specific exemption in accordance with annex A or a specific exemption or an acceptable purpose in accordance with annex B shall take appropriate measures to ensure that any production or use under such exemption or  purpose is carried...

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