Chapter IV. Treaties concerning international law concluded under the auspices of the United Nations and related intergovernmental organizations

SUMMARY

A. Treaties concerning international law concluded under the auspices of the United Nations United Nations Convention on Jurisdictional Immunities of States and Their Property. Adopted by the General Assembly on 2 December 2004 243 B. Treaties concerning international law concluded under the auspices of intergovernmental organizations related to the United Nations International Maritime... (see full summary)

 
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Chapter IV

TREATiEs COnCERning inTERnATiOnAl lAW COnCluDED unDER ThE AusPiCEs OF ThE uniTED nATiOns AnD RElATED inTERgOvERnmEnTAl ORgAnizATiOns

  1. Treaties concerning international law concluded under the auspices of the united nations

    United .Nations .Convention .on .Jurisdictional .Immunities .of .States . .and .Their .

    Property .Adopted .by .the .General .Assembly .on .2 .December .2004

    The .States .Parties .to .the .present .Convention,

    Considering .that .the .jurisdictional .immunities .of .States .and .their .property .are .generally .accepted .as .a .principle .of .customary .international .law,

    Having in mind .the .principles .of .international .law .embodied .in .the .Charter .of .the . United .Nations,

    Believing .that .an .international .convention .on .the .jurisdictional .immunities .of .States . and .their .property .would .enhance .the .rule .of .law .and .legal .certainty, .particularly .in .dealings .of .States .with .natural .or .juridical .persons, .and .would .contribute .to .the .codification . and .development .of .international .law .and .the .harmonization .of .practice .in .this .area,

    Taking into account .developments .in .State .practice .with .regard .to .the .jurisdictional . immunities .of .States .and .their .property,

    Affirming .that .the .rules .of .customary .international .law .continue .to .govern .matters . not .regulated .by .the .provisions .of .the .present .Convention,

    Have .agreed .as .follows:

    Part .I . Introduction

    Article 1. Scope of the present Convention

    The .present .Convention .applies .to .the .immunity .of .a .State .and .its .property .from .the . jurisdiction .of .the .courts .of .another .State

    Article 2. Use of terms

    1 .For .the .purposes .of .the .present .Convention:

    . Adopted . during . the . 65th . plenary . meeting . of . the . General . Assembly . by . resolution . 59/38 . of . 2 .December .2004

    244 . UNITED .NATIONS .JURIDICAL .YEARBOOK .2004

    (a) .“court” .means .any .organ .of .a .State, .however .named, .entitled .to .exercise .judicial . functions;

    (b) .“State” .means:

    . (i) . the .State .and .its .various .organs .of .government;

    . (ii) . constituent .units .of .a .federal .State .or .political .subdivisions .of .the .State, .which . are .entitled .to .perform .acts .in .the .exercise .of .sovereign .authority, .and .are .acting . in .that .capacity;

    . (iii) . agencies .or .instrumentalities .of .the .State .or .other .entities, .to .the .extent .that .they . are .entitled .to .perform .and .are .actually .performing .acts .in .the .exercise .of .sovereign .authority .of .the .State;

    . (iv) . representatives .of .the .State .acting .in .that .capacity;

    (c) .“commercial .transaction” .means:

    . (i) . any .commercial .contract .or .transaction .for .the .sale .of .goods .or .supply .of .services;

    . (ii) . any .contract .for .a .loan .or .other .transaction .of .a .financial .nature, .including .any . obligation .of .guarantee .or .of .indemnity .in .respect .of .any .such .loan .or .transaction;

    . (iii) . any .other .contract .or .transaction .of .a .commercial, .industrial, .trading .or .professional .nature, .but .not .including .a .contract .of .employment .of .persons

    2 .In .determining .whether .a .contract .or .transaction .is .a .“commercial .transaction” . under .paragraph .1 .(c), .reference .should .be .made .primarily .to .the .nature .of .the .contract .or . transaction, .but .its .purpose .should .also .be .taken .into .account .if .the .parties .to .the .contract . or .transaction .have .so .agreed, .or .if, .in .the .practice .of .the .State .of .the .forum, .that .purpose . is .relevant .to .determining .the .non-commercial .character .of .the .contract .or .transaction

    3 .The .provisions .of .paragraphs .1 .and .2 .regarding .the .use .of .terms .in .the .present . Convention .are .without .prejudice .to .the .use .of .those .terms .or .to .the .meanings .which .may . be .given .to .them .in .other .international .instruments .or .in .the .internal .law .of .any .State

    Article 3. Privileges and immunities not affected by the present Convention

    1 .The .present .Convention .is .without .prejudice .to .the .privileges .and .immunities . enjoyed .by .a .State .under .international .law .in .relation .to .the .exercise .of .the .functions .of:

    (a) .its .diplomatic .missions, .consular .posts, .special .missions, .missions .to .international . organizations .or .delegations .to .organs .of .international .organizations .or .to .international . conferences; .and

    (b) .persons .connected .with .them

    2 .The .present .Convention .is .without .prejudice .to .privileges .and .immunities .accorded . under .international .law .to .heads .of .State .ratione personae

    3 .The .present .Convention .is .without .prejudice .to .the .immunities .enjoyed .by .a .State . under .international .law .with .respect .to .aircraft .or .space .objects .owned .or .operated .by .a . State

    . chapter .IV . 245

    Article 4. Non-retroactivity of the present Convention

    Without .prejudice .to .the .application .of .any .rules .set .forth .in .the .present .Convention . to .which .jurisdictional .immunities .of .States .and .their .property .are .subject .under .international .law .independently .of .the .present .Convention, .the .present .Convention .shall .not . apply .to .any .question .of .jurisdictional .immunities .of .States .or .their .property .arising .in .a . proceeding .instituted .against .a .State .before .a .court .of .another .State .prior .to .the .entry .into . force .of .the .present .Convention .for .the .States .concerned

    Part .II . General .principles

    Article 5. State immunity

    A .State .enjoys .immunity, .in .respect .of .itself .and .its .property, .from .the .jurisdiction .of . the .courts .of .another .State .subject .to .the .provisions .of .the .present .Convention

    Article 6. Modalities for giving effect to State immunity

    1 .A .State .shall .give .effect .to .State .immunity .under .article .5 .by .refraining .from .exercising .jurisdiction .in .a .proceeding .before .its .courts .against .another .State .and .to .that .end . shall .ensure .that .its .courts .determine .on .their .own .initiative .that .the .immunity .of .that . other .State .under .article .5 .is .respected

    2 .A .proceeding .before .a .court .of .a .State .shall .be .considered .to .have .been .instituted . against .another .State .if .that .other .State:

    (a) .is .named .as .a .party .to .that .proceeding; .or

    (b) .is .not .named .as .a .party .to .the .proceeding .but .the .proceeding .in .effect .seeks .to . affect .the .property, .rights, .interests .or .activities .of .that .other .State

    Article 7. Express consent to exercise of jurisdiction

    1 .A .State .cannot .invoke .immunity .from .jurisdiction .in .a .proceeding .before .a .court . of .another .State .with .regard .to .a .matter .or .case .if .it .has .expressly .consented .to .the .exercise . of .jurisdiction .by .the .court .with .regard .to .the .matter .or .case:

    (a) . by .international .agreement;

    (b) . in .a .written .contract; .or

    (c) . by .a .declaration .before .the .court .or .by .a .written .communication .in .a .specific . proceeding

    2 .Agreement .by .a .State .for .the .application .of .the .law .of .another .State .shall .not .be . interpreted .as .consent .to .the .exercise .of .jurisdiction .by .the .courts .of .that .other .State

    Article 8. Effect of participation in a proceeding before a court

    1 .A .State .cannot .invoke .immunity .from .jurisdiction .in .a .proceeding .before .a .court . of .another .State .if .it .has:

    (a) .itself .instituted .the .proceeding; .or

    (b) .intervened .in .the .proceeding .or .taken .any .other .step .relating .to .the .merits .However, .if .the .State .satisfies .the .court .that .it .could .not .have .acquired .knowledge .of .facts .on .

    24 . UNITED .NATIONS .JURIDICAL .YEARBOOK .2004

    which .a .claim .to .immunity .can .be .based .until .after .it .took .such .a .step, .it .can .claim .immunity .based .on .those .facts, .provided .it .does .so .at .the .earliest .possible .moment

    2 .A .State .shall .not .be .considered .to .have .consented .to .the .exercise .of .jurisdiction .by . a .court .of .another .State .if .it .intervenes .in .a .proceeding .or .takes .any .other .step .for .the .sole . purpose .of:

    (a) .invoking .immunity; .or

    (b) .asserting .a .right .or .interest .in .property .at .issue .in .the .proceeding

    3 .The .appearance .of .a .representative .of .a .State .before .a .court .of .another .State .as .a . witness .shall .not .be .interpreted .as .consent .by .the .former .State .to .the .exercise .of .jurisdiction .by .the .court

    4 .Failure .on .the .part .of .a .State .to .enter .an .appearance .in .a .proceeding .before .a .court . of .another .State .shall .not .be .interpreted .as .consent .by .the .former .State .to .the .exercise .of . jurisdiction .by .the .court

    Article 9. Counterclaims

    1 .A .State .instituting .a .proceeding .before .a .court .of .another .State .cannot .invoke . immunity .from .the .jurisdiction .of .the .court .in .respect .of .any .counterclaim .arising .out .of . the .same .legal .relationship .or .facts .as .the .principal .claim

    2 .A .State .intervening .to .present .a .claim .in .a .proceeding .before .a .court .of .another . State .cannot .invoke .immunity .from .the .jurisdiction .of .the .court .in .respect .of .any .counterclaim .arising .out .of .the .same .legal .relationship .or .facts .as .the .claim .presented .by .the . State

    3 .A .State .making .a .counterclaim .in .a .proceeding .instituted .against .it .before .a .court . of .another .State .cannot .invoke .immunity .from .the .jurisdiction .of .the .court .in .respect .of . the .principal .claim

    Part .III . Proceedings .in .which .State .immunity .cannot .be .invoked

    Article 10. Commercial transactions

    1 .If .a .State .engages .in .a .commercial .transaction .with .a .foreign .natural .or .juridical . person...

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