The Role of Biraderies in the Politics of Faisalabad Division.

Byline: Ayub Anwar


Due to Political Dynasties very few families keep ruling Pakistan's Political career. This Biradary/Caste system influenced very much even a common man's life in Faisalabad Division and its local institutions. Important and official posts are divided according to this system, and normal persons are deprived of. There are dozens of Political dynasties, which are unbreakable, part of our existing political system. Generally, three classes exist in Pakistan i.e, rich, average and poor. Their different life styles, languages and customs prominent their Biradary/cost system. As compare to new, old dynasties are as strong as rock in Pakistan's politics. We can say that this system is another form of Aryan's social system in Sub-continent.

As Hindus are still believers of caste system while in Muslims this is replaced by Biradary. That's why their some customs reflect Hinduism and are quite different from Islam. It is a religion of equality and Biradary system leads to superiority. It has created oligarchies still uling Pakistan's legislative institutes.

Elections and Biradarism

National and Provincial elections special Local bodies elections are held on the basis of Biradary system. After the existence of Pakistan, The politics in Faisalabad Division was affected with the arrival of Mahajreen. Biradary system lost its fame in elections of 1970 up to 1977's elections. But local Biradary groups started in local bodies elections. This platform again raised them at the top in Political grouping. Actually this platform was the local body election on non party basis in 1988. It played a significant role in up-rooting of Biradary system, soon after those general elections were held on party basis through court orders in the country. Till 2002's elections the political effects lessended in Pakistan i.e. Punjab. On the other hand Biradary system got empowerment in Faisalabad instead of Political theoretical division this was the time when voters elect their representatives through Biradary system in National and Provincial elections and in local bodies organizations.

Features and Charactristies of Biradary Syste

Literally the word Biradary is defined in two steps. First one is related to close and relative people while second refer to non-relatives of Biradary. Punjabies are familiar with the word Biradary. In this system one person is all in all. His name is used as a surname. He deals all problems faced to his family and sorts out their solutions. Their Biradary is just like a protector for its victim. They strictly follow their norms and rules with traditional customs. Rich and powerful people help their needy relatives. In this way a deserve family survives easily and gets protection and possible aid. It has a strong unity, less breakage of marriages. In the same way in death situation Biradary always helps out the widow and her children. Mostly it is observed that any influential or bureaucrat stands by his own Biradary and provides jobs and all possible financial assistance morally.

This successful system originated from the Aryan's cast system before BC-2000 to BC 1000. They had declared three main casts Brahman, Khastray and Vaish and local people as Shoodars the lowest one. The second generation made this system more complexed to maintain their glory and pomp and show. Some religious scholars tried their best to discourage this system but in vain in finishing it. Invader neither extinct local people nor took their place. As a result a new civilization was introduced. It made the political Biradary more stronger. During the rule of Muslim Empire in Hindustan Muslims were divided into high and low casts. This division and superior complex of Muslim belonging to Turk, Afghan and Arabs compelled local Muslims to Biradarism and further divided into little ranks according to their ancestors' surname. In fact it was structure of Biradary. At the end of Mughals empire English people used this social structure to prolong their rule and stay in subcontinent.

They further divided local men as land keepers and non land keepers. Thus the division of land keepers and non land keepers, martial and non martial nations proved to be helpful and fruitful to make it stronger and stronger. Biradarism provided solid platform to its nation by covering inferiority and superiority complex. In Punjab Biradarism is based on "Village", as it is famous for its agricultural land. Here low level social structures are the region of political power and influence. According to relations among biradaries there are three kinds of these relations which provide basic structure for social political factors of these biraderies.

  1. The first kind is those relation which are based on real caste are /Biraderies and are roots of Punjab's traditions and customs.

  2. Mutual personal relations between two or more than two biradaries in social structure.

  3. Now the third kind of relation provides Government or administrative structure specially District Administration and Police this structure has covered entire rural society completely. They all are in one chain.

    Eminent Biradaries of Pakistan and their idiosyncrasy

  4. Jutt: Very important and prominent caste is Jutt. Jutt are ancient nation. There are many branches castes and races of Jutt biradary. They like combine families, joint family system in their base. They are in majority in Punjab. They are famous for farming. They are well mannered, well behaved but not wild like pathans. They are honest, loyal, independent, self made and hard working but usually uneducated. Jutt like peaceful environment. Their famous castes are Cheema, Chatta, Kahloon, Hajjara, Randhawa, Ranjha, Dhariwal, Bajwa, Bhaddar, Barlas, Phiphra, Basra, Janjua, Sipra, Langryal and Mangat.

  5. Rajpoot: This caste has ruled in Punjab very prominent and famous, honorable, acceptable and still politicians of this Biradary are in Pakistan's legislative Institutions. In this famous caste and Sub-castes are Virk, Panvar, Kathia, Kalyars, Khokhars, Manj, Kharal, Chohan, Khichi, Bhatti, Sahi, Kulloo, Jaswal, Minhas, Jiral, Chip, Sikhria etc... Punjab';s Rajpoot are decent and bold men they are feudalistic and land lord by nature. They have great love for their lands and feel proud to be Rajpoot. Their nature is opposite to physical labour and ploughing in the field.

  6. Pathan: Pathan are very hospitable and brave. British had declared them revenger cruel and wild. Many proverb are famous about them like their enmity is like a fire of dried cow-dung cakes which remain burning inside. Inspite of all these they provide shelter to their enemy. They are true to words. They are always fully armed. Their ladies strictly observe parda/veil. They follow religion and tribal dogmaties in their inheritance, and property. Their famous castes are Khattak, Afridi and Mohmend.

  7. Sayyed: Sayyed are descendants of Hazrat Muhammad (P.B.U.H). They are respectable in all sub-continent. In India they are equal to Brahman, as Hindues respect this caste very much. Sayyed are landlord and High level farmers. They are naturally bestowed regarding land and money. Their attitude with their servants and cultivators are not good. They are proud. Their famous castes are Hassani, Hussani, Jillani, Gardezi, Bukhari...

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