Until now, research on personal branding is still relatively rare. Empirical evidence has found that early recruitment practices can be used to externally market brands (Collins & Stevens, 2002) and that personal branding has benefits in terms of increasing the quantity and quality of applicants (Collins & Han, 2004). Devos & Banaji (2005) states that the boundaries between the cultural groups are getting thinner, the more interaction, there will be mixing. Furthermore, Fischer & Smith (2006) stated that workers from different social cultures bring different careers and aspirations to their work. Workers are influenced differently by the perceptions of fairness depending on their value orientation (Fischer & Smith, 2006). The findings of some of these phenomenon's are the author's reasons to investigate more deeply and also suspect that no researcher has yet examined the influence cultural competence to form personal brand of worker. Therefore, it is important to foster cultural competence for the workforce and knowledge of the similarities and differences of culture for the success of the company strategy.
In exploring the definition of values, the authors adopted three opinions of Rokeach (1973); Schwartz (1977); Hofstede (1984). The definition of value according to Rokeach (1973) is a relatively stable belief about the specific desired behavioral models and the more desirable circumstances personally and socially rather than the opposite or opposite model of behavior or state of existence. Schwartz's values are classified into a number of motivational domains or value types consisting of dimensions of individualism versus collectivism. It appears that the type of value is assumed to represent the dimensions of individualistic values (power, achievement, hedonism, stimulus and self-direction), while some other types of values represent the dimensions of collective value (virtue, tradition, conformity) and the other types are considered to represent mixed interests (universalism, security).
Hofstede's view differs from Rokeach & Schwartz in classifying values and relating them to culture. According to Hofstede the value is a broad tendency to prefer or choose certain circumstances in comparison with others. Hofstede universally divides the dimensions of cultural values including individualism-collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance and masculinity.
Lopez et al. (2002) states that cultural competence is a set of problem solving skills that include; the ability to recognize and understand the dynamics between heritage and the adaptation of cultural behavior, the ability to use knowledge in understanding heritage and the challenges of adapting effective cultural judgments and internalization. As expressed by many studies, people of various nationalities typically hold diverse cognitive mechanisms influenced by national cultural norms, as antecedents of individual beliefs and values affect the behavior of certain workers and intentions (Srite & Karahanna, 2006). Erdem & Swait (1998) describe the framework in countries representing different cultural dimensions and some differences between countries.
Aguirre & Rodriguez (2014) states that culture plays a role in the perception of private brands. Early empirical evidence suggests a positive relationship between the appropriateness of private brands and consumer brands across cultures, but the strongest relationship is moderated by cultural orientation (Lam et al., 2002). Aaker (1999) suggest that consumers in culturally different contexts identify brands with different personality traits. Lam et al. (2012) states that certain cultural orientations resonate with certain brand concepts, such as "unique". Matzler et al. (2016); brand concept represents self-improvement, but does not describe openness. Rajagopal (2009) states some of the most important factors for a strong brand in a strategic position, one of which is cultural values. Many scholars have also examined the influence of cultural values on brand awareness and came to the conclusion that values have a significant influence (Paasovaara et al., 2012).
Based on some of the empirical evidence that the concept of cultural competence in this case is cultural awareness, cultural sensitivity, cultural intelligence, cultural knowledge, solute skills and internalization attitude that encourages personal brand awareness. If so, if cultural competence increases its role through cultural awareness, cultural sensitivity, cultural intelligence, cultural knowledge, solute skills and internalization attitudes, it will encourage the formation of a good personal brand. A high culture of individualism tends to look for hedonistic variations and experiences, whereas high collectivism culture is more correlated with group conformity and behavior.
Bennett (1993) describes a series of entities to improve progress in terms of making agreements with different cultures, with an ethnocentric view of acceptance, adaptation and integration. Meanwhile, according to Gregory, Munch & Peterson (2002) is a value-attitude relationship. Roth (1995) in his hypothesis found that collectivism culture in considering brands that strengthen group membership and affiliations more interesting, while individualistic culture supports brands that strengthen their independence and provide individual satisfaction.
And I argue that cultural competence is the integration and transformation of knowledge about individuals and groups of people to standard specifications, policies, practices and attitudes used in appropriate cultural settings to improve service quality, resulting in better outcomes.
Personal branding has emerged from the application of marketing principles to the personnel recruitment field (Cable & Turban, 2001). Montoya & Vandehey (2003) said that personal...