Author:Sharafi, Hossein


In today's competitive world, sports organizations are struggling to compete and improve their performance. Therefore, an important part of the energy of organizations is paying attention to employees, because human resources are the main factor behind the organization in the competition (Soltani et al., 2011). One of the most important factors that increases the efficiency and satisfaction of the individual and career success is job satisfaction (Ariza-Montes et al., 2018).

As the main organization responsible for sports related affairs of Iran, the ministry of sports and youths is the highest reference for issues related to sports and youths. The performance of this ministry impacts the entire aspects of sports including the public sports and professional sports. In addition the performance of this organization can provide the necessary contexts for realization of sports-and-physical-education-related goals. This cannot be achieved unless through having employees with efficient capabilities (Pour-Sultani Zarandi et al., 2013). In other words, nowadays one of every individuals' most important aspects of life is his/her job and therefore identification of needs, motives, tendencies and, factors of satisfaction and dissatisfaction of employees not only are necessary, but are also essential for adoption of proper policies, suitable strategies and, effective plans (Forooghi et al., 2008). On this basis, the very first priority in current era has become the necessity of fulfilling the primary needs of employees. This is because obtaining organizational goals is in debt to the fulfillment of the goals of groups as well as their logical and legitimate needs (Nazari Tavakoli & Montazeri, 2013).

Therefore in organizational conditions, in addition to playing various roles and obtaining goals, keeping the workforce satisfied is also an important priority (Kocoglu et al., 2014). This is because the former has a significant impact on organizational results. In the views of scholars, job satisfaction is defined as the scale of positive feelings of employees about their jobs (Alfayad & Arif, 2017). Enskar (2012) defines job satisfaction as the level to which employees like their jobs. He further adds that job satisfaction is an abstract phenomenon that is the result of synchronization of attitude and behavior. The dimensions of job satisfaction include the six components of the payment system, job type, progression opportunities, organizational atmosphere, leadership style and, physical conditions (Weiss et al., 1967). Job satisfaction is an important factor that leads to improved efficiency, a state of personal satisfaction and, job successfulness. The prerequisite to it is the recognition of human resources as well as their attitudes towards their jobs (Karimi & Andaam, 2016). At the least, managers must pay attention to the personnel's job satisfaction (Bhatti et al., 2015). This is because loyal human resources who are satisfied by their jobs and consistent with organizational goals and values, in addition to trying to maintain those employees who undertake extra-role activities can be important in terms of organizational effectiveness.

Having such forces in an organization is accompanies with improved performance level, reduced absence rates and lower resignation rates as well. In addition it is the most credible social appearance of tan organization's credibility while providing the contexts for its growth and further development (Virgolino, 2017). On the other hand, in today's mysterious competitive environment with evolutions, speed, complexity and uncertainty as its main characteristics, the survival and success of every organization requires the adoption and execution of effective strategies in addition to continuous improvement of the performance. Scholars believe that competence of a society for execution of such strategies depends thoroughly on various infrastructures. Organizational justice and its dimensions are considered as the software infrastructures of every society (Moshiri et al., 2013). Organizational justice has been defined as the methods used during distribution of achievements and adoption of distributive decisions in addition to, laws and norms developed in relation to personal dynamicity (Sain & Shahin, 2017). In another definition, organizational justice refers to the justice perceived of official procedures and policies in relation to the methods adopted by the organization while decision making. In addition it asks whether these methods are trustworthy, clear, and moral, without bias, precise, reformable and free from deception (Rai et al., 2013).

The researchers in the field of organizational justice believe that organizational justice has three dimensions:

Distributive justice: related to evaluation of the results of decision-makings including evaluation of performance, salaries and rewards (Srivastava, 2015).

Interactive justice: related to mutual respect and honesty in social interactions with others.

Procedural justice: related to employees' feeling of justice about policies, processes and methods (Lim & Losmor, 2017).

Organizational justice is one of the most important indices effective on employees' job satisfaction in an organization (Byrne, 2005). This is because injustice lads to employees' psychological distress (Srivastava, 2015). Employees reactions to injustice include absence, quitting, anger, madness and, retributive actions including stealing or sabotaging. As a result, injustice can negatively influence performance, job satisfaction and trust (Rineer et al., 2017; Virgolino et al., 2017). In this regard researchers have supported the necessity of fairness of decision making processes (procedural justice), the relations between these decisions (interactive justice) and, the manner of effectiveness of organizational justice on various attitudinal and behavioral consequences including job satisfaction in sports organizations (Kerwin et al., 2015). Nevertheless, if employees and managers of sports organizations feel injustice, they will run into conflicts with each other in order to ensure fair results (Kerwin et al., 2015). It is obvious that job satisfaction would not be realized without investigating the level of organizational justice and the level of achievement of goals of the organization in addition to, receiving feedbacks about execution of policies, identification of areas that require serious reformations and continuous improvement of performance (Pour Sultani Zarandi et al., 2011).

In this regard, most of the researchers in the past two decades have emphasized on studying the perception of employees of organizational policies. This is usually referred to as perception of organizational politics (Saleem et al., 2015). Organizational policies are related to behaviors that are in contrary to certain positions of an organization. These behaviors are undertaken for selfish goals that are in contrast to the goals of other co-workers in the organization (Chang et al., 2009).

In another definition, the organizational policy has been defined as a nonofficial method for gaining power through instruments other than chance or competence (Dubrin, 2010). Ferris & Kacmar (1992) have stated that organizational policy is some sort of subjective perception, but it is not necessarily an objective fact. Perceived organizational policies are personal political interpretations of environmental motives; they are declared as the factors of change in personal or group interests, which is also political. Managers of organizations can be the most influential actors in organizational politics. It is believed that employees basically know that the managers are responsible for occurrence of political behaviors (Ariai et al., 2015).

Most employees perceive organizational policies under negative circumstances, because it is assumed that the main purpose of organizational policies is to promote and maintain the personal interests of individuals (Saleem et al., 2015). In terms of negative aspects of organizational policies, employees' perception of organizational politics and the feeling of working in a political environment have negative effects on occupational results (Vigoda, 2002).

Researchers believe that high perception of organizational policy can result in reduced job satisfaction, equality between employees, reduced quality of work, lack of realization of goals, feeling of discrimination and ultimately, transfers in the workplace (Gotsis & Kortzei, 2010; Cacciattolo, 2015).

Job satisfaction is formed when the needs, expectations and desires of the employees are satisfied by their jobs and organizations. In this regard, perception of organizational politics in the workplace can damage the sense of equality and justice in managerial processes. As a result, employees may become unsatisfied by their jobs due to others' unfair achievements through political tactics (Atinc et al., 2010).finally, the payment and promotion policies play important roles in continuality of political actions in an organization (Ferris & Kacmar, 1992). If the employees feel that unfair decisions have been adopted by the organization regarding rewards and promotions, they will be unsatisfied by their organization. Lack of justice can be due to organizational policies. This ultimately affects job satisfaction (Vigoda, 2002).

In addition there exists a robust negative correlation between organizational justice and perceived organizational policies (Cropanzano et al., 1997). Regarding the effects of perception of organizational politics on employees' attitudes, researches have shown that this perception results in lack of job satisfaction and higher potentials for quitting (Ram & Prabhakar, 2010). Employees will know their workplace as an unfair workplace especially if rewards and promotions depend on organizational policies rather than laws and regulations. This in turn feeds the perception of...

To continue reading