The Influence of Familial and Peer Social Support on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Among Black Girls in Juvenile Correctional Facilities

AuthorBo-Kyung Elizabeth Kim,Patricia Logan-Greene,Camille R. Quinn,Ralph Joseph Diclemente,Donte T. Boyd,Sujeeta E. Menon,Dexter Voisin,Eseosa Asemota
DOI10.1177/0093854820972731
Published date01 July 2021
Date01 July 2021
Subject MatterArticles
CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND BEHAVIOR, 2021, Vol. 48, No. 7, July 2020, 867 –883.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854820972731
Article reuse guidelines: sagepub.com/journals-permissions
© 2020 International Association for Correctional and Forensic Psychology
867
THE INFLUENCE OF FAMILIAL AND PEER
SOCIAL SUPPORT ON POST-TRAUMATIC
STRESS DISORDER AMONG BLACK GIRLS
IN JUVENILE CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES
CAMILLE R. QUINN
The Ohio State University
DONTE T. BOYD
University of Houston
BO-KYUNG ELIZABETH KIM
University of Southern California
SUJEETA E. MENON
University of Houston
PATRICIA LOGAN-GREENE
State University of New York at Buffalo
ESEOSA ASEMOTA
Harvard University
RALPH JOSEPH DICLEMENTE
New York University
DEXTER VOISIN
University of Toronto
Black girls bear a higher burden of juvenile justice involvement in the United States, relative to other racial/ethnic female
groups. Emerging evidence suggests that system involvement is related to trauma histories and post-traumatic stress disorder
(PTSD). This study investigated the associations between individual, family, and peer factors, and their relationship to PTSD
among Black girls with juvenile justice involvement. Cross-sectional data were collected from 188 Black girls in detention.
Measures assessed were history of abuse, negative peer norms, future orientation, caregiver support, self-esteem, age, and
PTSD symptoms. Major regression findings indicated that higher rates of caregiver support, higher negative peer norms,
lower self-esteem rates, and lower future orientation rates were correlated with greater PTSD symptoms. Treatment programs
for this population warrant a multisystemic approach, which includes caregivers and peers, and bolstering important con-
structs such as self-esteem and hopefulness.
Keywords: corrections; victimization; sexual abuse; parenting; peer influence
AUTHORS’ NOTE: We would like to acknowledge Kayla Luttrell of The Ohio State University College of
Social Work for her writing and editorial assistance. All authors have met the criteria for authorship through
their substantial individual contributions of the conception and development of this article. The content is solely
the responsibility of the authors. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Camille R.
Quinn, College of Social Work, The Ohio State University, 325U Stillman Hall, 1947 College Road, Columbus,
OH 43210-1132; e-mail: quinn.395@osu.edu.
972731CJBXXX10.1177/0093854820972731Criminal Justice and BehaviorQuinn et al. / Influence of Familial and Peer Social Support
research-article2020
868 CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND BEHAVIOR
Girls are the fastest growing group in the United States juvenile justice system, account-
ing for a third of all juvenile arrests (Kerig, 2018; Tam et al., 2019), and Black girls are
overrepresented in the juvenile justice system when compared with their other racial/ethnic
female counterparts (Hockenberry & Puzzanchera, 2017; Office of Juvenile Justice and
Delinquency Prevention [OJJDP], 2019). Black girls aged below 18 years accounted for
about 35% of all justice-involved girls although they comprise only 14% of the national
population of American girls (OJJDP, 2019; Sickmund et al., 2020; Vafa et al., 2018).
Justice-involved youth are disproportionately affected by post-traumatic stress disorder
(PTSD), compared with youth with no such histories (Abram et al., 2013; H. J. Rosenberg
et al., 2014). In addition, the association between abuse and/or polyvictimization (i.e., mul-
tiple forms of abuse) and PTSD has been more pronounced for adolescent females than
males (Kerig, 2018).
Little information exists related to trauma experiences and sequelae for Black juvenile
justice–involved girls. Establishing correlates of PTSD is a first step to inform and develop
prevention and intervention strategies and services within and outside the justice system to
address their criminogenic needs (Andrews & Bonta, 2010b). This study addresses this gap
in the extant literature by examining the degree to which history of abuse, negative peer
norms, future orientation, caregiver support, and self-esteem correlate with PTSD symp-
toms among Black girls with juvenile justice involvement. The selection of these variables
was informed by the extant literature and theoretical considerations.
HISTORY OF ABUSE AND PTSD
High numbers of girls in the juvenile justice system self-disclose trauma and victimiza-
tion, putting them at risk for PTSD and psychosocial and behavioral problems, especially
those who have been polyvictimized (Charak et al., 2019; Ford et al., 2013; Kalu et al.,
2020; Kerig, 2018). According to the Survey of Youth in Residential Placement, 42% of
girls versus 22% of boys in juvenile custody reported previous physical abuse. Similarly,
35% of girls versus 8% of boys reported past sexual abuse (Sedlak & McPherson, 2010).
Moreover, approximately 40% of Black females report experiencing coercive sexual con-
tact by the age of 18 years, reflecting a high rate of sexual trauma among girls of color
(Women of Color Network, 2006).
There is an established link between victimization and juvenile justice involvement
among girls (Ford et al., 2013; Kerig, 2018; Yoder et al., 2019). In addition, childhood
sexual and physical abuse and neglect often precede and are strongly correlated with offend-
ing behavior (Ryan et al., 2013). Croysdale & colleagues (2008) found that girls were poly-
victimized at a much higher rate (39%) than boys (19%) in their study. In addition, Pereda
& colleagues (2017) noted that girls reported that they were more victimized by their care-
givers in the previous year versus the boys in the sample (47.4% and 18.3%, respectively).
Furthermore, girls reported psychological/emotional victimization (31.6%) and sexual
abuse (42.1%) more than boys who were either psychologically (or emotionally) abused
(11.0%) or sexually abused (9.8%). In a latent class analysis conducted by Charak and col-
leagues (2019), there were more girls than boys in the polyvictimization class, who reported
multiple forms of victimization and violence exposures across physical, psychological,
family, and sexual domains. Participants in this class also indicated high levels of emotional

To continue reading

Request your trial

VLEX uses login cookies to provide you with a better browsing experience. If you click on 'Accept' or continue browsing this site we consider that you accept our cookie policy. ACCEPT