THE IMPACT OF ORGANIZATIONAL SILENCE CAUSAL FACTORS ON SELF-EFFICACY OF HEALTH CENTER EMPLOYEES IN THE JORDANIAN CAPITAL CITY (AMMAN).

Author:Alheet, Ahmad Fathi
 
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INTRODUCTION

Organizational silence emphasizes the employees' inability to express their opinions and refraining from talking about problems and issues related to work. Hence, organizations need to figure out the reasons of organizational silence from their employees; as it affects their self-efficacy at work. On one hand, resorting to organizational silence may possibly indicate avoiding mistakes and damages at work. In addition, it may limit problems triggered by organizational voice; this assures the benefit from this side of organizational silence (Beheshtifar et al., 2012).

On the other hand, organizational silence can result from the lack of practical experience; it may also indicate worrying and fearing the look of others. Thus, organizational silence is the only choice, this indicate the passivity of silence (Fedai & Demir, 2010).

Research Problem & Questions

Most of the health centers employees tend to use organizational silence because they cannot solve the problems which they face effectively, they also do not participate in taking a decision out of fear of administrators. In addition, they cannot work efficiently under constant work pressure; which indicate a presence of a problem that could be summarized by the following question: What is the impact of organizational silence causal factors on self-efficacy of health center employees in the Jordanian capital city?

The research soaks to answer the following questions:

  1. What is the level of the causative factors for organizational silence among health centers employees in the Jordanian capital city (Amman)?

  2. What is the level of self-efficacy that health centers employees have got in the Jordanian capital city?

    Limitation of the Research

    The research is limited to the employees of the Jordanian health centers in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

    Research Hypothesis & Objectives

    H0: There is no impact for the organizational silence causal factors according to health center employees on self-efficacy in the Jordanian capital city (Amman).

    To answer the research questions and test its hypotheses, the following objectives can be achieved:

  3. Identify the level of the causative factors for organizational silence among health centers employees in the Jordanian capital.

  4. Monitor the level of self-efficacy of health centers employees in the Jordanian capital.

  5. Investigate the impact of the causative factors for organizational silence on self-efficacy among health centers employees in the Jordanian capital.

    Research Terms

    Effect: Is what leaves new ideas for the receiver; it motivates the psyche, a group of thoughts and information. The psychological condition has a main role in changing the behavior of a human and a group of people for a certain period, to a certain direction (Morrison, 2011).

    Organizational Silence: Is the behavioral choice which can increase or decrease the performance level, (Bagheri et al, 2013),which is the intentional blocking for questions, ideas, opinions and information about the cases related to work or organization (Deniz et al., 2013).

    Self-Efficacy: Is the individual's trust in self-potentials in good situations or in the ones which require unfamiliar requests; characterized by the individual's personal beliefs along with focusing on efficiency to explain behavior (Brown & Bettine, 1999).

    LITERATURE REVIEW

    Organizational silence is divided into three types; the positive organizational silence which revolves around decreasing problems triggered by expressing opinion. The positive silence; improves the employee's proficiency and increases self-efficacy. The negative silence indicates apathy and being afraid of solitude also concerning others views against giving opinions. In addition, employees feel concerned about the punishment of the supervisor (Donaghey et al., 2011). Organizational silence creates fear and anxiety among employees; it also disengages them from discussing important cases. This leads to dissatisfaction and position alienation, it may also create silent rules and behaviors for new employees. Thus, it hinders their self-efficacy (Maryam & Seyed, 2012). Self-efficacy is derived from the social cognitive theory which Bandura has established its basics in his book Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change, 1977. He assured that human behavior can explained by comparing behavior with the cognitive, personal and environmental factors. Most of behaviors have a purpose; individuals are able to make self-study and organize their behavior using direct impact and control. In addition, choosing the environmental condition or changing them. In 2016, Shima and Behzad made a study which aimed to measure the impact of the organizational culture on organizational silence and the voice of 317 stratified random samples of the faculty members in the Islamic Azda University in Tahran. The study depended on the descriptive analytical method; most of the significant results have shown a great influence on organizational silence. Based on the weak organizational culture, the organizational voice was high while the organizational silence was low.

    In 2012, Gulsun and Gor study had discussed the cases of silent nurses. It aimed to define the cases where organizational silence is being practiced in one of the medical institutions in Turkey. The sample consisted of 137 nurses; it depended on the descriptive analytical method. Results have shown five cases where organizational silence is being practiced: the performance of administrator in facility, administrative cases, vocational ethics, responsibility, the performance of the department. In addition, nurses who are less than 25 year old and their length of service is less than 4 years, they practice organizational silence more than others; because of management and organization at work. In 2012, Maryam and Seyed's study had concerned the relationship between organizational silence and commitment in Iran, it aimed to discover the relationship between workers in the faculty of humanities and management. The sample consisted of two groups: academic teachers and administrative officers. In order to achieve study goals, it depended on the descriptive analytical method, the significant results have shown an inverse correlation between organizational silence and commitment, the more there was organizational silence, the less there was job commitment, as organizational silence indicate apathy not silence. Hence, this creates lack of commitment. Moreover, organizational silence is a destructive process which costs the organization high expenses.

    As for self-efficacy, in 2011, Caceres' study aimed to monitor the self-efficacy level of the deaf and hearing-impaired students. A random sample has been chosen; it consisted of 116 primary and secondary students from schools in the Spanish city, Valencia. In order to achieve the goals of the study, it depended on the self-efficacy scale; according to the students' results in writing, then work on analyzing them. The significant results have shown that the self-efficacy level of students was between low and medium. Following the same framework, in 2011, Lee and Vega's study had discovered the perceptions of special education teachers in California for their self-efficacy. The study sample consisted of 154 teachers. In order to achieve the study goals, the researchers have depended on a special...

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