Author:Angheluta, Petrica Sorin
  1. Introduction

    Through the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (UN, 2015), it was established 17 objectives of sustainable development. The 17 sustainable development goals refers to: no poverty; zero hunger; good health and wellbeing; quality education; gender equality; clean water and sanitation; affordable and clean energy; decent work and economic growth; industry, innovation and infrastructure; reduced inequalities; sustainable cities and communities; responsible consumption and production; climate action; life below water; life on land; peace, justice and strong institutions; partnerships for the goals.

    At the same time, in addition to sustainable development objectives, III UN Habitat conference on housing and sustainable urban development, held in Quito (Ecuador), 17-20 October 2016 has proposed guidelines. It is desirable that cities from around the world to be more inclusive, greener, safer and more prosperous. At European level, it has proposed new Urban Agenda (EU, 2016a). It aims at harnessing the potential of rapid urbanization and transformation into opportunities to create jobs. Also, the new European Urban Agenda aims to increase the quality of life for all residents of the European Union. The objectives of the Urban Agenda for the EU refer to better regulations, better to finance or to better knowledge.

    To achieve these goals, the Urban Agenda for the EU pursues several principles, among which we can mention: multilevel governance, partnership working methods, integrated approach sustainable urban development. Among the priority themes of the Urban Agenda for the EU can be found air quality, climate adaptation, and energy transition.

    Cities are places where they meet both opportunities and challenges. There are conditions for economic growth and creating jobs. Creativity and innovation can lead to increase the competitiveness. However, issues on unemployment, segregation and poverty are challenges for urban areas. With a large population, cities experience greater pressure on urban services (energy, water, health, transport, and housing). However, cities can share knowledge and participate in creating innovative solutions that generate new economic opportunities. The urbanization process has certain opportunities and risks. Thus, for inhabitants of less developed countries, urbanization has the possibility to bring a certain prosperity and social and cultural freedoms. Also, where the urbanization process is not sufficiently well managed, it can bring major risks (Earle, 2016).

  2. Human Capital

    Human capital deficit causes the imbalances in the labour market. Cities can and should be involved in the actions of the climate changes mitigate. Also, cities play an important role in sustainable economic growth. Economic and social development of a region is influenced by the development of urban areas in that region. Thus for the economic, environmental and social current challenges, cities can be considered both as sources and as solutions (EU, 2016b).

    According to data presented by the National Institute of Statistics (NIS, 2017), live births decreased by 9%, from 214,728 people in 2007 to 195,612 people in 2014. The region that recorded the most important decrease is North East Region. Thus, Figure 1 shows the evolution of number of live births for the period 2007-2014, for this region (people).

    In the period 2008-2011, there is a decrease in the number of live-births with approximately 15.4%, from 28,217 to 23,876. Even if the number of...

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