The e nd result of house hold prog rams like the ones
outlin ed ab ove, combined with the necessar y pol icy initia-
tives, may be the beginning of a transfor mative sustainab ility
process—not j ust in the actual saving s in fossil fuels and ot her
valuable materials, but als o in the growing sense that house-
holds and communities can ach ieve a transition t o a more sus-
tainable city .
Endnotes: Sustainable Cities of the Future: The Behavior Change Driver
1 Jan Scheurer & Peter Newman, Vauban: A European Model Bridging the
Brown and Green Agendas, in un habitat global report on human Settle-
mentS 2009 4 (2009), available at http://www.unhabitat.org/downloads/docs/
2 Id.; city oF hanover, hannover-KronSberg: moDel oF a SuStainable com-
munity (1998), available at http://www.hannover.de/data/download/lhh/umw_bau/
urban_development.pdf; city oF hanover, co2auDit 1991–2001 (2003).
3 peter newman & iSabella JenningS, citieS aS SuStainable ecoSyStemS
(2008); Peter Newman, The Environmental Impact of Cities, 18 env’t anD
urbaniZation 275, 278 (2007).
4 Id. at 275.
5 Masdar City is a planned community being developed just outside Abu
Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (“UAE”). Funded primarily by the UAE govern-
ment, the goals of the project include creating a sustainable urban environment
designed to use as few resources as possible and to create a center for research
and academic work. See abu Dhabi Future energy co., maSDar city, http://
www.masdarcity.ae/en/index.aspx (last visited Oct. 13, 2010).
6 The Redevelopment Plan for Treasure Island, between San Francisco and
Oakland, California, calls for high density residential and commercial districts,
convenient public transit systems, sustainable urban design, and remediation
of existing environmental problems. See treaSure iSlanD/yerba buena iSlanD
reDevelopment plan, environmental impact report, at II.4-5 (2010), available at
7 peter newman, timothy beatley & heather boyer, reSilient citieS:
reSponDing to peaK oil anD climate change 14 (2009).
8 Chris Twinn, BedZED, the arup Journal, Jan. 2003, at 10, 11, available
9 Id. at 10.
10 wwF et al., living planet report 2008 32 (2008), available at http://
11 Jan Scheurer, Urban Ecology, PhD Thesis, inStitute For SuStainability anD
technology policy, murDoch univerSity, 2002, available at http://www.istp.
murdoch.edu.au/ISTP/publications/jscheurer/carfree/carfree.html; David Beyer,
Sustainable Building and Construction, PhD Thesis, inStitute For SuStainabil-
ity anD technology policy, murDoch univerSity, 2002, 38-40, available at
12 peter newman & JeFFery Kenworthy, SuStainability anD citieS: overcom-
ing automobile DepenDence 70-71 (1999).
13 Id. at 51-52.
14 Peter Newman & Jeffery Kenworthy, Greening Urban Transportation, in
worlDwatch inStitute, State oF the worlD 2007 77 (2007).
15 newman & Kenworthy, supra note 12, at 90.
16 tranSperth pta annual report 2009/09, public tranSport authority oF
weStern auStralian government, http://www.pta.wa.gov.au/Portals/0/annual-
reports/2009/transperth/index.html (last visited October 13, 2010).
17 Newman & Kenworthy, supra note 14, at 68.
18 Id. at 78.
19 Id. at 74.
20 the center For tranSit-orienteD Development, hiDDen in plain Sight:
capturing the DemanD For houSing near tranSit 21 (2004), available at
21 Andrew Went, Peter Newman & Wal James, 100% Renewable Transport, in
100% renewable: energy autonomy in action 205-24 (Peter Droege ed., 2009).
22 Id. at 219-20.
23 gerharD p. metSchieS, Fuel priceS anD vehicle taXation (2nd ed., 2001),
available at http://www.international-fuel-prices.com/downloads/FuelPri-
ces2001.pdf; richarD porter, economicS at the wheel: the coStS oF carS
anD DriverS (1999). See also curtin univerSity SuStainability policy inSti-
tute, http://sustainability.curtin.edu.au (last visited Oct. 13, 2010).
24 See newman, beatley & boyer, supra note 7, at 107.
25 Id. at 158-59.
26 Id. at 86.
27 newman & Kenworthy, supra, note 12, at 142.
28 See Randy Salzman, TravelSmart: A Marketing Program Empowers Citi-
zens to be a Part of the Solution in Improving the Environment, maSS tranSit:
SuStainability conceptS, Apr. 2008, at 8, available at http://masstransitmag.
epubxpress.com/link/mass/2008/substain/1?s=0; Randy Salzman, Now That’s
What I Call Intelligent Transport…SmartTravel, thinKing highwayS, Mar.
2008, at 26.
29 Colin Ashton-Graham, garnaut climate change review, travelSmart
anD livingSmart caSe StuDy—weStern auStralia (forthcoming), available at
http://www.garnautreview.org.au (following the link: Home page > All reports &
resources > Case studies > TravelSmart and LivingSmart–Western Australia)
30 Publication and Maps, Department oF tranSport, government oF weSt-
ern auStralia, http://www.transport.wa.gov.au/14897.asp (last visited Oct. 9,
2010); SalZman supra note 28.
31 About TravelSmart, Department oF tranSport, government oF weStern
auStralia, http://www.transport.wa.gov.au/15002.asp (last visited Oct. 13,
2010); Ashton-Graham, supra note 29.
32 How Does TravelSmart Household Work?, Department oF tranSport, gov-
ernment oF weStern auStralia, http://www.transport.wa.gov.au/14958.asp
(last visited Oct. 13, 2010).
33 Colin Ashton-Graham & Gary John, TravelSmart + TOD = Synergy and
Sustainability, tranSit-orienteD Development conFerence Fremantle 3 (2005).
34 TravelSmart to School, Department oF tranSport, government oF weStern
auStralia, http://www.transport.wa.gov.au/14909.asp (last visited Oct. 13, 2010).
35 Ashton-Graham & John, supra note 33.
38 ian Ker, north briSbane houSeholD travelSmart: peer review anD eval-
uation, For briSbane city council, queenSlanD tranSport, anD auStralian
greenhouSe oFFice (2008).
39 Newman & Kenworthy, supra note 14, at 66.
40 SocialData auStralia, Department oF tranSport, travelSmart houSe-
holD Final evaluation report murDoch Station catchment (city oF
melville 2007) 28 (2009), available at http://www.dpi.wa.gov.au/ts_ﬁnalre-
41 Id.; public tranSport authority, weStern auStralian government, http://
www.pta.wa.gov.au/ (last visited Oct. 9, 2010).
42 DaviD waKe, reDucing car commuting through employer-baSeD travel
planning in perth, auStralia, 3 (2007), available at http://www.dpi.wa.gov.
44 Living Smart Home, Department oF tranSport, government oF weStern
auStralia, www.dpi.wa.gov.au/livingsmart (last visited Oct. 9, 2010).
45 Ashton-Graham, supra note 29, at 5.
46 Ashton-Graham, supra note 29; SocialData auStralia, Department oF
tranSport, implementation report living Smart JoonDalup anD manDurah
(2009), available at http://www.transport.wa.gov.au/ls_Implementation_
47 Synovate ltD., livingSmart quality Survey–houSeholD reSponSeS to
energy, water, waSte anD travel DemanD management ServiceS 43 (2009),
available at http://www.transport.wa.gov.au/ls_Quality_Survey_Report_2009.pdf.
48 Ashton-Graham, supra note 29.
49 Living Smart Home, supra note 44. See, e.g. Environmental Indicators:
Greenhouse Gas Emissions, u.n. Stat. DiviSion, http://unstats.un.org/unsd/
environment/air_co2_emissions.htm (last updated Aug. 2009) (indicating as of
2006, per capita emissions were 19.7 tonnes in the United States, 9.2 tonnes in
the United Kingdom, and 19 tonnes in Australia).
50 Synovate ltD., supra note 47.