Survey of Washington Search and Seizure Law: 1988 Update

Publication year1988
CitationVol. 11 No. 03

UNIVERSITY OF PUGET SOUND LAW REVIEWVolume 11, No. 3SPRING 1988

Survey of Washington Search and Seizure Law: 1988 Update

Justice Robert F. Utter

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction................................................. 421

Chapter 1: Triggering the Fourth Amendment and

Article I, Section 7: Defining Searches and Seizures........................................ 422

1.0 Defining "Search" pre-Katz: "Constitutionally Protected Areas"...... 423

1.1 Defining "Search" post-Katz: The "Reasonable Expectation of Privacy" - 424

1.2 Defining "Search" post-Katz: Continuing Vitality of "Constitutionally Protected Areas"......................... 426

1.3 Specific Applications of Post-Katz Analysis .................................. 427

1.3(a) Residential Premises............ 427

1.3(b) Related Structures: The

Curtilage......................... 429

1.3(c) Adjoining Lands and "Open

Fields"........................... 431

1.3(d) Business and Commercial

Premises......................... 434

1.3(e) Automobiles and Other Motor

Vehicles.......................... 436

1.3(f) Personal Characteristics......... 437

1.3(g) Personal Effects and Papers .... 438 1.3(h) Special Environments: Prisons,

Schools, and Borders............ 441

1.4 Defining Seizures of the Person......... 442

1.4(a) Consentual Encounters..........443

1.4(b) Seizures in Vehicles.............444

1.4(c) Seizures in Homes...............444

1.4(d) Civil Offenses....................445

1.5 Defining Seizures of Property...........445

1.6 Standing to Raise Search and Seizure

Claims.................................... 445

Chapter 2: Standards of Proof............................ 449

2.0 Nature of Probable Cause: Introduction ............................................ 449

2.1 Probable Cause Standard: Arrest

Versus Search............................ 450

2.2 Probable Cause Standard: Characteristics............................ 450

2.2(a) Objective Test...................450

2.2(b) Probability.......................451

2.2(c) Individualized Suspicion.........452

2.3 Information Considered: In General----453

2.3(a) Hearsay..........................454

2.3(b) Prior Arrests, Prior

Convictions, and Reputation----455

2.3(c) Increased Power Consumption..455

2.4 First-hand Observation...................456

2.4(a) Particular Crimes: Stolen

Property......................... 456

2.4(b) Particular Crimes: Illegal

Substances....................... 456

2.4(c) Association: Persons and

Places............................ 457

2.4(d) Furtive Gestures and Flight .... 458

2.4(e) Response to Questioning........ 459

2.5 Information from an Informant: In General................................... 460

2.5(a) Satisfying "Basis of Knowledge"

Prong by Personal Knowledge.. 461

2.5(b) Satisfying "Veracity" Prong by

Past Performance............... 462

2.5(c) Satisfying "Veracity" Prong by Admissions Against Interest and by Motive........................ 463

2.6 Citizen Informants-Victim/Witness Informants: In General.................. 464

2.6(a) Satisfying the "Basis of

Knowledge" Prong.............. 464

2.6(b) Satisfying the "Veracity" Prong by Partial Corroboration of

Informant's Tip and by Self-Verifying Detail.................465

2.6(c) Sufficiency of Information

Supplied..........................466

2.7 Police as Informants.....................467

2.7(a) Satisfying "Veracity" and "Basis

of Knowledge" Prongs..........467

2.7(b) Multiple Hearsay................468

2.8 Information from Anonymous or Unknown Informants: Satisfying "Veracity" Prong.........................469

2.9 Special Searches and Seizures Requiring Greater or Lesser Levels of Proof.......469

2.9(a) Administrative Searches........469

2.9(b) Terry Stops and Frisks..........470

2.9(c) Intrusions Into the Body........471

2.9(d) Special Environments: Schools,

Prisons, and Borders............472

Chapter 3: Search Warrants...... ........................472

3.0 Introduction: Fourth Amendment Requirements for Search Warrants......472

3.1 Types of Items That May Be Searched

and Seized.................. .............472

3.2 Who May Issue Warrants: Neutral and Detached Magistrate Requirements.....473

3.2(a) Qualifications of a "Magistrate".473

3.2(b) Neutrality........................474

3.2(c) Burden of Proof.................476

3.3 Content of the Warrant..................476

3.3(a) Oath or Affirmation; Multiple

Affidavits........................476

3.3(b) Information Considered.........476

3.3(c) Oral Testimony and Oral

Warrants.........................478

3.3(d) Administrative Warrants........478

3.4 Particular Description of Place to be Searched..................................478

3.4(a) General Considerations..........478

3.4(b) Particular Searches: Places.....480

3.4(c) Particular Searches: Persons ...481

3.5 Particular Description of Things to be Seized.....................................482

3.5(a) General Rules................... 482

3.5(b) Circumstances Requiring

Greater Scrutiny ................ 483

3.6 Execution of the Warrant: Time of Execution................................. 485

3.7 Entry Without Notice or by Force: "Knock and Announce" Requirements.. 485

3.7(a) Types of Entry Requiring

Notice............................ 486

3.7(b) Compliance with

Requirements.................... 489

3.7(c) Exceptions....................... 491

3.8 Search and Detention of Persons on Premises Being Searched................ 494

3.8(a) Search of Persons on Premises

Being Searched.................. 494

3.8(b) Detention of Persons on

Premises Being Searched....... 496

3.9 Permissible Scope and Intensity of

Search.................................... 496

3.9(a) Area.............................. 497

3.9(b) Personal Effects................. 497

3.9(c) Vehicles.......................... 499

3.10 Seizure of Unnamed Items: Requirements in General............... 499

3.11 Delivering Warrant and Inventory: Requirements for Execution of Warrants ................................ 499

3.12 Challenging the Content of an

Affidavit................................. 500

3.12(a) Informant's Identity............ 500

3.12(b) Misrepresentations and

Omissions in the Affidavit..... 502

3.13 Special Situations....................... 503

3.13(a) First Amendment Limitations . 503

3.13(b) Intrusions Into the Body....... 503

3.13(c) Warrants Directed at Non-Suspects ......................... 505

Chapter 4: Seizure of the Person: Arrests and Stop-and-

Frisks.......................................... 506

4.0 Arrest: Introduction..................... 506

4.1 Arrests Without Warrants: Public

versus Home Arrests..................... 506

4.2 Arrests Without Warrants: Felony

versus Misdemeanor Arrests............. 508

4.2(a) Felony Arrest.................... 508

4.2(b) Misdemeanor Arrest............ 508

4.3 Arrest with Warrants.................... 509

4.4 Arrests: Miscellaneous Requirements... 510

4.4(a) Use of Force..................... 510

4.4(b) Significance of Booking and Crime Charged: Pretextual

Arrests........................... 511

4.4(c) Judicial Review.................. 512

4.4(d) Custodial Arrests for Minor

Offenses ......................... 512

4.5 Stop-and-Frisk: Introduction............ 514

4.6 Satisfying the Reasonable Suspicion Standard.................................. 515

4.6(a) Factual Basis and Individualized

Suspicion......................... 515

4.6(b) Particular Applications:

Informants....................... 516

4.6(c) Particular Applications: Nature

of Offense........................ 518

4.6(d) Examples of Satisfying or

Failing to Satisfy the

Reasonable Suspicion Standard . 518

4.7 Dimensions of a Permissible Stop....... 520

4.7(a) Time, Place, and Method........ 520

4.7(b) Detention of Persons in

Proximity to Suspect............ 522

4.8 Constitutional Limitations on Compelled Responses to Investigatory Questions................................. 523

4.9 Grounds for Initiating a Frisk........... 523

4.9(a) Scope of a Permissible Frisk___ 525

4.9(b) Frisks of Persons in Proximity

to Suspect........................ 527

4.9(c) Other Protective Measures

Besides Frisks................... 527

4.9(d) Search of Area Measurers

Besides Frisks................... 528

Chapter 5: Warrantless Searches and Seizures: The

Exceptions to the Warrant Requirement..... 528

5.0 Introduction.............................. 528

5.1 Search Incident to Arrest................ 529

5.1(a) Lawful Arrest................... 530

5.1(b) "Immediate Control"............ 531

5.2 "Immediate Control" or Permissible

Scope: Particular Applications.......... 533

5.2(a) The Defendant .,................ 533

5.2(b) Vehicles and Containers........ 534

5.3 Pre-Arrest Search........................ 536

5.4 Post-Detention Searches: Search Incident to Arrest and Inventory

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