Section VI - Law Enforcement Personnel

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SECTION VI

LAW ENFORCEMENT PERSONNEL 363

Law Enforcement Personnel

Law enforcement personnel provide many different services in many different settings including cities, colleges and universities, metropolitan (suburban) counties, nonmetropolitan (rural) counties, and states. Each of these settings has its own unique needs based on its demographic traits. For example, a small town situated between two larger cities may require more law enforcement personnel than a community of the same size that does not have an urban center nearby. A town with legal gambling establishments poses different law enforcement challenges than a locale with a large military base; a municipality that is the site of a small college has different needs than one comprised mostly of retirees.

Law enforcement personnel provide services in a variety of settings, and the services they provide vary from place to place. The responsibilities of state police and highway patrol agencies differ from one jurisdiction to another-ranging from traffic enforcement on state highways and interstate roads to responsibility for investigating violent crimes committed throughout the state. In some areas, the county sheriff's office may handle civil functions such as tax collections; they may be the enforcement authority for local and state courts; or they may administer jail facilities. In other areas, sheriff's deputies may be the sole provider of law enforcement in the county and are therefore responsible for providing all law enforcement services across a vast geographical area. Consequently, data users must consider these differences in service requirements and duties when attempting to compare law enforcement employee rates.

The information in the following tables are guidelines or averages; data users should not consider these numbers as recommended staffing levels.

Users must carefully study and analyze a myriad of conditions affecting service requirements before determining the appropriate personnel needs of a jurisdiction.

The following section includes Tables 70-73, which present the average rates of law enforcement personnel per 1,000 inhabitants collectively employed by agencies within population groups. Table 74 represents the percent of male and female officers and civilians by popu- lation group. (See Appendix III.) Table 75 provides the percent of total full-time civilian employees, and Table 76 furnishes the number of law enforcement employees working within state law enforcement agencies by state. Tables 78-81 list the number of law enforcement employees for cities, colleges and universities, and metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties. Table 82 furnishes employee data for law enforcement agencies that serve the Nation's transit systems, parks and forests, schools and school districts, hospitals, etc. The jurisdictions of these entities usually overlap with the jurisdictions of local law enforcement; thus, no population is assigned to the agencies listed in Table 82.

Law Enforcement Rate

There were 3.5 full-time law enforcement employees, officers and civilians, for every 1,000 inhabitants in the Nation in 2003. (Based on Table 74.) A total of 14,072 city, county, and state police agencies employed 663,796 full-time officers and 285,146 civilians, who provided law enforcement services to more than 274 million inhabitants.

(See Table 74.) Overall, cities in the Nation averaged 3.0 law enforcement employees per 1,000 inhabitants in 2003. Cities with less than 10,000 inhabitants had the highest average among city population groups, with 4.2 employees per 1,000 inhabitants; those cities with populations of 25,000 to 99,999 had the lowest average with 2.3 employees per 1,000 inhabitants. The Nation's largest cities, those with populations of 250,000 or more inhabitants, had 3.6 employees per 1,000 inhabitants. Metropolitan counties had 4.4 law enforcement employees per 1,000 inhabitants; nonmetropolitan counties had 4.6 employees per 1,000 inhabitants.

Of the Nation's four regions-the Northeast, the Midwest, the South, and the West-cities in the South had the highest law enforcement employee rate of 3.5 employees per 1,000 inhabitants. Northeastern cities had a rate of 3.2; Midwestern cities, 2.8; and Western cities, 2.4. (See Table 71.)

Sworn Personnel

The Nation's cities collectively had a rate of 2.3 sworn law enforcement officers per 1,000 inhabitants in 2003. Cities with populations of less than 10,000 inhabitants had the highest rate, 3.3, of sworn officers per 1,000 inhabitants, and cities with populations of 25,000 to 99,999 had the lowest rate, 1.8, of sworn officers per 1,000 inhabitants. Cities with a population of more than 250,000 inhabitants, the Nation's largest cities, had a rate of 2.7 sworn officers per 1,000 inhabitants. The Nation's metropolitan counties had a rate of 2.6 sworn officers per 1,000 inhabitants, and nonmetropolitan counties had a rate of 2.8 sworn 364 CRIME IN THE UNITED STATES officers for every 1,000 in population. (Based on Table 74.) In terms of the number of sworn personnel by region, cities in the South had 2.7 sworn law enforcement officers per 1,000 inhabitants; the Northeast, 2.6; the Midwest, 2.2; and the West, 1.7. (See Table 71.) The gender breakdown of sworn law enforcement officers was as follows: in the Nation, 88.6 percent male and 11.4 percent female; in cities collectively, 88.7 percent male and 11.3 percent female; in metropolitan counties, 86.7 percent male and 13.3 percent female; and in nonmetropolitan counties, 92.2 percent male and 7.8 percent female. (Based on Table 74.)

Civilian Employees

Thirty percent of the Nation's law enforcement workforce were civilian employees. In cities overall, 23.0 percent of law enforcement employees were civilians. Civilian employees made up 39.8 percent of the law enforcement workforce in metropolitan counties and 39.2 percent in nonmetropolitan counties. Females accounted for 62.5 percent of all civilian law enforcement employees. (Based on Table 74.)

Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted

Fifty-two law enforcement officers were feloniously slain in the line of duty in 2003, a decrease from the 56 officers who were killed in the line of duty in 2002. In addition, 80 officers were accidentally killed during the performance of their official duties in 2003, an increase from the 76 officers accidentally killed in 2002. The UCR publication Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted contains more extensive information on line-of-duty deaths as well as data on assaults on city, county, state, and federal officers.

LAW ENFORCEMENT PERSONNEL 365

Table 70

Full-time Law Enforcement Employees

1

as of October 31, 2003

Number and Rate per 1,000 Inhabitants by Geographic Region and Division by Population Group [2003 estimated population] Population group

Total (10,658 cities; population 183,400,149)

Group I (71 cities, 250,000 and over; population 53,436,860) Group II (168 cities, 100,000 to 249,999; population 25,195,766) Group III (391 cities, 50,000 to 99,999; population 26,866,391) Group IV (757 cities, 25,000 to 49,999; population 26,172,918) Group V (1,774 cities, 10,000 to 24,999; population 28,090,979) Group VI (7,497 cities, under 10,000; population 23,637,235) Geographic region/division

TOTAL CITIES: 10,658 cities; population 183,400,149: Number of employees 546,920 193,530 62,624 61,788 60,637 69,084 99,257 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 3.0 3.6 2.5 2.3 2.3 2.5 4.2

New England: 761 cities; population 12,571,444:

Number of employees 32,595 2,645 4,721 5,649 6,966 7,321 5,293 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 2.6 4.5 3.3 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.9

Middle Atlantic: 1,451 cities; population 29,301,193:

Number of employees 102,361 53,552 5,154 8,245 11,164 12,165 12,081 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 3.5 5.1 3.2 2.6 2.5 2.2 3.1

NORTHEAST: 2,212 cities; population 41,872,637: Number of employees 134,956 56,197 9,875 13,894 18,130 19,486 17,374 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 3.2 5.1 3.2 2.5 2.4 2.2 3.0

East North Central: 2,014 cities; population 31,671,139:

Number of employees 90,653 30,856 7,179 10,208 12,731 14,238 15,441 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 2.9 4.4 2.4 2.2 2.1 2.3 3.2

West North Central: 1,212 cities; population 12,739,419:

Number of employees 31,522 7,486 3,273 3,790 3,739 5,025 8,209 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 2.5 3.4 2.2 1.8 1.9 2.2 3.1

MIDWEST: 3,226 cities; population 44,410,558: Number of employees 122,175 38,342 10,452 13,998 16,470 19,263 23,650 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 2.8 4.1 2.4 2.1 2.1 2.3 3.2

South Atlantic: 1,697 cities; population 21,131,333:

Number of employees 85,343 20,756 12,164 11,023 8,069 10,956 22,375 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 4.0 4.3 3.0 3.2 3.1 3.4 7.3

East South Central: 959 cities; population 9,039,418:

Number of employees 32,521 7,294 4,279 1,991 3,363 5,349 10,245 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 3.6 3.1 3.5 3.2 2.9 3.1 5.3

West South Central: 1,231 cities; population 22,073,165:

Number of employees 63,777 23,100 7,796 7,041 4,914 7,132 13,794 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 2.9 2.8 2.4 2.3 2.4 2.7 5.0

SOUTH: 3,887 cities; population 52,243,916: Number of employees 181,641 51,150 24,239 20,055 16,346 23,437 46,414 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 3.5 3.3 2.9 2.8 2.8 3.1 6.0

Mountain: 562 cities; population 13,355,943:

Number of employees 35,472 14,848 6,120 3,252 3,020 2,767 5,465 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 2.7 2.8 2.2 2.0 2.3 2.6 4.3

Pacific: 771 cities; population 31,517,095:

Number of employees 72,676 32,993...

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