Section VI - Law Enforcement Personnel

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SECTION VI

Law Enforcement Personnel

The requirements for law enforcement service vary greatly from one locale to another based upon each jurisdiction's unique demographic traits and characteristics. A small community situated between two large cities, for example, may require a greater number of law enforcement personnel than a community of the same size that has no urban center nearby. Similarly, the needs of a community having a highly mobile or seasonal population may be very different from those of a city with a relatively stable population. A community that incorporates legal gambling establishments will have different law enforcement challenges than one in which the presence of a large military base is the dominant influence, just as a small college town will have different needs than one comprised predominantly of retirees.

The functions of law enforcement are also significantly diverse throughout the Nation. The responsibilities of state police and highway patrol agencies vary considerably from one jurisdiction to another. Their duties range from traffic enforcement on state highways and interstate roadways to major investigative responsibilities for all violent crimes committed statewide. In certain areas, sheriffs' responsibilities are limited exclusively to civil functions, sole enforcement for state and local courts and/ or the administration of the county jail facilities. In others, the sheriffs may be the only law enforcement presence in remote locations covering large geographical zones. Nationally, the overall role of law enforcement continues to be expanded and redefined in light of the constant threat from international and domestic terrorism. When attempting any comparison of law enforcement employee rates, the data user must consider these differing service requirements and responsibilities.

The data presented in the following tables represent national, regional, and state averages; they should be viewed as guides or indicators, not as recommended or preferred police staffing levels. Adequate personnel for a specific locale can be determined only after careful study and analysis of the various conditions affecting service requirements in that jurisdiction.

This edition of Crime in the United States contains a new table, Law Enforcement Employees as of October 31, 2001, by Other Agencies by State. Table 82 supplies employee data for 171 law enforcement agencies charged with serving a broad range of specific organizations/ entities. These county and state agencies serve the Nation's transit systems, parks and forests, tribal reservations, hospitals, and school districts (including educational institutions not categorized as colleges or universities). Drug and narcotics units and task forces are included in Table 82, along with county detectives and prosecutorial law enforcement staff. Collectively, 26.9 percent of the agencies listed serve some form of mass transit (airports, seaports, railways) and 25.7 percent are associated with schools or school districts. The majority of these agencies have concurrent jurisdiction with local law enforcement; therefore, no population is assigned to them.

Law Enforcement Rate

A national average of 2.5 full-time officers were employed for every 1,000 inhabitants in the United States as of October 31, 2001. Including full-time civilian employees, the overall law enforcement rate was 3.5 per 1,000 inhabitants. (Based on Table 74). The 13,530 city, county, and state police agencies reporting in 2001 collectively employed 659,104 officers and 279,926 civilian employees and provided law enforcement service to approximately 268 million of the Nation's inhabitants. (See Table 74.) A listing of reported full-time law enforcement officers and civilian employees by state is provided in Table 77.

The Nation's cities collectively reported an average of 3.1 law enforcement employees per 1,000 inhabitants. Cities with populations of 1 million and over had the highest rate with 4.7 employees per 1,000. Suburban and rural counties had rates of 4.4 and 4.2 employees per 1,000 population, respectively. (Based on Table 74.) Regionally, the city law enforcement employee rate was 3.6 per 1,000 inhabitants in 316 LAW ENFORCEMENT PERSONNEL the Northeast, 3.5 in the South, 2.8 in the Midwest, and 2.4 in the West. (See Table 70.)

Sworn Personnel

The national rate for all cities, based solely on sworn law enforcement personnel (excluding civilians), was 2.4 officers per 1,000 inhabitants. By city population grouping, the rates ranged from 3.5 officers per 1,000 inhabitants for cities with populations of 1 million and over to 1.8 in cities with 25,000 to 99,999 inhabitants. Suburban and rural counties had rates of 2.7 and 2.5 officers per 1,000 in population, respectively. (Based on Table 74.) By region, cities in the North had the highest rate of sworn officers to population, 2.8 per 1,000 followed by cities in the South with 2.7, the Midwest cities with 2.2, and the West with 1.7 officers per 1,000 inhabitants. (See Table 71.) Both nationally and in cities, males made up 88.8 percent of all sworn officers. Males accounted for 91.9 percent of sworn officers in rural counties and 87.1 percent in suburban counties. (See Table 74.) Table 79 provides a listing of reported full-time law enforcement officers and civilian employees by university and college for each state. In 2001, 602 participating agencies provided law enforcement services on college and university campuses. Sworn officers comprised 65.8 percent of the staff in agencies that submitted employment data.

Civilian Employees

Of the total law enforcement employee force in the United States in 2001, civilians constituted 29.8 percent. In cities, civilians represented 23.2 percent of the police employees and made up 39.3 percent of the staff in both suburban and rural counties. (See Table 75.) Of all civilian employees, 62.7 percent were female. (See Table 74.)

Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted

Seventy law enforcement officers were feloniously slain in the line of duty in 2001, 19 more than in the previous year. An additional 78 officers were accidentally killed during the performance of their official duties in 2001- 7.1 percent less than the 2000 total of 84 officers accidentally killed.

Extensive data on line-of-duty deaths and assaults on city, county, state, and federal officers can be found in the Uniform Crime Reports publication, Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted.

CRIME IN THE UNITED STATES 2001 317

Table 70

Full-time Law Enforcement Employees

1

as of October 31, 2001

Number and Rate per 1,000 Inhabitants by Geographic Region and Division by Population Group [2001 estimated population] Population group Group I Group II Group III Group IV Group V Group VI (70 cities, (163 cities, (380 cities, (734 cities, (1,739 cities, (7,175 cities, Total Cities 250,000 100,000 50,000 25,000 10,000 under (10,261 cities; and over; to 249,999; to 99,999; to 49,999; to 24,999; 10,000; population population population population population population population Geographic region/division 178,915,172) 52,194,574) 24,348,635) 26,109,909) 25,485,483) 27,602,652) 23,173,919)

TOTAL CITIES: 10,261 cities; population 178,915,172:

Number of employees

553,148

207,133 61,367 60,522 59,642

68,627

95,857

Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants

3.1

4.0 2.5 2.3 2.3

2.5

4.1

New England: 765 cities; population 12,434,046:

Number of employees 33,124 2,791 5,047 5,777 6,972 7,261 5,276 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 2.7 4.7 3.5 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.9

Middle Atlantic: 1,404 cities; population 28,539,804:

Number of employees 114,475 67,909 4,761 8,964 10,480 11,552 10,809 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 4.0 6.5 3.4 2.7 2.5 2.2 2.8

NORTHEAST: 2,169 cities; population 40,973,850:

Number of employees

147,599

70,700 9,808 14,741 17,452

18,813

16,085

Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants

3.6

6.4 3.5 2.6 2.4

2.2

2.9

East North Central: 1,985 cities; population 31,321,118:

Number of employees 90,658 31,570 7,252 10,350 11,670 14,780 15,036 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 2.9 4.4 2.5 2.2 2.1 2.3 3.2

West North Central: 910 cities; population 11,964,410:

Number of employees 29,716 7,541 3,033 3,497 3,882 4,788 6,975 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 2.5 3.4 2.2 1.7 2.0 2.2 3.1

MIDWEST: 2,895 cities; population 43,285,528:

Number of employees

120,374

39,111 10,285 13,847 15,552

19,568

22,011

Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants

2.8

4.2 2.4 2.1 2.1

2.3

3.1

South Atlantic: 1,723 cities; population 21,097,786:

Number of employees 84,434 20,865 11,566 10,931 8,136 11,244 21,692 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 4.0 4.4 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.5 6.8

East South Central: 970 cities; population 8,725,952:

Number of employees 32,287 6,301 4,329 1,855 3,418 5,443 10,941 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 3.7 3.2 3.5 3.3 2.9 3.1 5.4

West South Central: 1,176 cities; population 21,365,019:

Number of employees 62,538 23,559 7,602 5,850 5,578 6,694 13,255 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 2.9 2.9 2.4 2.3 2.5 2.7 4.8

SOUTH: 3,869 cities; population 51,188,757:

Number of employees

179,259

50,725 23,497...

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