Section VI - Law Enforcement Personnel

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SECTION VI Law Enforcement Personnel

As of October 31, 2000, law enforcement agencies across the Nation employed an average of 2.5 full-time officers for every 1,000 inhabitants. When full-time civilian employees were included, the rate was 3.5 per 1,000 inhabitants. The 13,535 city, county, and state police agencies reporting in 2000 collectively employed 654,601 officers and 271,982 civilian employees and provided law enforcement service to approximately 265 million of the Nation's inhabitants. Table 77 provides a listing of reported full-time law enforcement officers and civilian employees by state.

Varying demographic traits as well as other jurisdictional characteristics greatly affect the requirements for law enforcement service from one locale to another. The needs of a community having a highly mobile or seasonal population, for example, may be very different from those of a city whose population is relatively stable. Similarly, a small community situated between two large cities may require a greater number of law enforcement personnel than a community of the same size which has no urban center nearby.

The functions of law enforcement are also significantly diverse throughout the Nation. In certain areas, sheriffs' responsibilities are limited almost exclusively to civil functions and/or the administration of the county jail facilities. Likewise, the responsibilities of state police and highway patrol agencies vary from one jurisdiction to another.

In view of these differing service requirements and responsibilities, care should be used when attempting any comparison of law enforcement employee rates. The rates presented in the following tables represent national averages; they should be viewed as guides or indicators, not as recommended or preferred police strengths. Adequate personnel for a specific locale can be determined only after careful study and analysis of the various conditions affecting service requirements in that jurisdiction.

There were an average of 3.1 law enforcement employees per 1,000 inhabitants in the Nation's cities collectively. Cities with populations of 1 million and over had the highest rate with 4.8 employees per 1,000. Suburban and rural counties each had a rate of 4.3 employees per 1,000 population. (See Table 74.) By region, the law enforcement employee rate was 3.5 per 1,000 inhabitants in both the Northeast and in the South, 2.8 in the Midwest, and 2.5 in the West. (See Table 70.)

Sworn Personnel

When based solely on sworn law enforcement personnel (excluding civilians), the national rate for all cities was 2.4 officers per 1,000 inhabitants. By city population grouping, the rates ranged from 3.7 for cities with populations of 1 million and over to 1.8 in cities with 25,000 to 99,999 inhabitants. Suburban and rural counties each had a rate of 2.6 officers per 1,000 in population. (See Table 74.) By region, the Northeastern States had the highest rate of sworn officers to population, 2.8 per 1,000. This rate was followed by the Southern States with 2.7, the Midwestern States with 2.2, and the Western States with 1.8 officers per 1,000 inhabitants.

Males made up 89.0 of all sworn officers nationally and 89.1 percent of all sworn officers in cities. Men accounted for 91.9 percent of sworn officers in rural counties and 87.2 percent in suburban counties.

Civilian Employees

Civilians constituted 29.4 percent of the total law enforcement employee force in the United States in 2000 and represented 22.7 percent of the police employees in cities. Civilian employees comprised 39.4 percent in suburban counties and 38.5 percent in rural counties. Females accounted for 62.7 percent of all civilian employees.

Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted

Fifty-one law enforcement officers were feloniously slain in the line of duty in 2000, nine more than in the previous year. An additional 84 officers were accidentally killed during the performance of their official duties in 2000-19 higher than the 1999 total of 65 officers accidentally killed.

Extensive data on line-of-duty deaths and assaults on city, county, state, and federal officers can be found in the Uniform Crime Reports publication, Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted.

Table 70

Full-time Law Enforcement Employees

1

as of October 31, 2000

Number and Rate per 1,000 Inhabitants by Geographic Region and Division by Population Group [2000 estimated population] Population group Geographic region/division

Total (10,386 cities; population 177,721,567)

Group I (68 cities, 250,000 and over; population 50,410,355) Group II (161 cities, 100,000 to 249,999; population 23,931,099) Group III (376 cities, 50,000 to 99,999; population 25,637,085) Group IV (743 cities, 25,000 to 49,999; population 25,673,349) Group V (1,795 cities, 10,000 to 24,999; population 28,276,838) Group VI (7,243 cities, under 10,000; population 23,792,841)

TOTAL: 10,386 cities; population 177,721,567: Number of employees 550,971 205,032 60,802 59,338 59,491 68,251 98,057 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 3.1 4.1 2.5 2.3 2.3 2.4 4.1

New England: 739 cities; population 12,289,904:

Number of employees 32,822 2,850 4,768 6,348 6,809 7,021 5,026 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 2.7 5.0 3.6 2.5 2.3 2.2 2.9

Middle Atlantic: 1,634 cities; population 29,716,708:

Number of employees 116,000 67,305 4,706 8,492 10,781 12,233 12,483 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 3.9 6.6 3.4 2.6 2.4 2.1 2.7

NORTHEAST: 2,373 cities; population 42,006,612: Number of employees 148,822 70,155 9,474 14,840 17,590 19,254 17,509 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 3.5 6.6 3.5 2.5 2.4 2.1 2.8

East North Central: 2,009 cities; population 31,395,010:

Number of employees 91,268 31,543 6,961 10,524 12,126 14,525 15,589 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 2.9 4.5 2.5 2.2 2.2 2.3 3.2

West North Central: 888 cities; population 11,883,121:

Number of employees 29,143 7,563 3,246 3,154 3,785 4,786 6,609 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 2.5 3.5 2.3 1.7 1.9 2.2 2.9

MIDWEST: 2,897 cities; population 43,278,131: Number of employees 120,411 39,106 10,207 13,678 15,911 19,311 22,198 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 2.8 4.3 2.4 2.1 2.1 2.2 3.2

South Atlantic: 1,699 cities; population 20,413,748:

Number of employees 82,597 19,671 12,563 10,216 7,635 10,615 21,897 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 4.0 4.4 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.4 6.8

East South Central: 930 cities; population 8,889,213:

Number of employees 34,521 6,547 4,395 1,983 3,868 5,341 12,387 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 3.9 3.9 2.9 3.2 2.9 3.0 6.2

West South Central: 1,178 cities; population 21,362,243:

Number of employees 61,531 23,298 7,754 5,683 5,673 6,785 12,338 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 2.9 2.9 2.4 2.3 2.4 2.6 4.7

SOUTH: 3,807 cities; population 50,665,204: Number of employees 178,649 49,516 24,712 17,882 17,176 22,741 46,622 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 3.5 3.5 2.8 2.8 2.8 3.0 6.0

Mountain: 562 cities; population 12,617,051:

Number of employees 33,527 13,948 5,733 2,832 2,379 3,001 5,634 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 2.7 2.9 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.5 4.4

Pacific: 747 cities; population 29,154,569:

Number of employees 69,562 32,307 10,676 10,106 6,435 3,944 6,094 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 2.4 2.8 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.0 4.7

WEST: 1,309 cities; population 41,771,620: Number of employees 103,089 46,255 16,409 12,938 8,814 6,945 11,728 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 2.5 2.8 2.0 1.9 2.0 2.2 4.5

Suburban Area and County

2

Suburban Area: 6,357 agencies; population 108,189,602: County: 3,149 agencies; population 87,091,922:

Number of employees 395,878 Number of employees 375,612 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 3.7 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 4.3

1 Includes civilians.

2 Suburban area includes suburban city and county law enforcement agencies within metropolitan areas. Excludes central cities. Suburban cities and counties are also included in other groups. County includes total of suburban and rural counties.

Table 71

Full-time Law Enforcement Officers as of October 31, 2000

Number and Rate per 1,000 Inhabitants by Geographic Region and Division by Population Group [2000 estimated population] Population group Geographic region/division

Total (10,386 cities; population 177,721,567)

Group I (68 cities, 250,000 and over; population 50,410,355) Group II (161 cities, 100,000 to 249,999; population 23,931,099) Group III (376 cities, 50,000 to 99,999; population 25,637,085) Group IV (743 cities, 25,000 to 49,999; population 25,673,349) Group V (1,795 cities, 10,000 to 24,999; population 28,276,838) Group VI (7,243 cities, under 10,000; population 23,792,841)

TOTAL: 10,386 cities; population 177,721,567: Number of officers 425,860 156,205 46,100 46,080 46,836 54,533 76,106 Average number of officers per 1,000 inhabitants 2.4 3.1 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.9 3.2

New England: 739 cities; population 12,289,904:

Number of officers 26,966 2,189 3,930 5,459 5,694 5,776 3,918 Average number of officers per 1,000 inhabitants 2.2 3.8 3.0 2.1 1.9 1.8 2.2

Middle Atlantic: 1,634 cities; population 29,716,708:

Number of officers 91,718 50,261 4,014 7,081 9,091 10,465 10,806 Average number of officers per 1,000 inhabitants 3.1 5.0 2.9 2.1 2.0 1.8 2.3

NORTHEAST: 2,373 cities; population 42,006,612: Number of officers 118,684 52,450 7,944 12,540 14,785 16,241 14,724 Average number of officers per 1,000 inhabitants 2.8 4.9 2.9 2.1 2.0 1.8 2.3

East North Central: 2,009 cities; population 31,395,010:

Number of officers 74,586 26,796 5,671 8,358 9,472 11,551 12,738 Average number of officers per 1,000 inhabitants 2.4 3.8 2.0 1.8 1.7 1.8 2.7

West North Central: 888 cities; population...

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