Section VI - Law Enforcement Personnel

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SECTION VI Law Enforcement Personnel

As of October 31, 1999, an average of 2.5 full-time officers for every 1,000 inhabitants were employed by law enforcement agencies nationwide. Including full-time civilians, the overall law enforcement employee rate was 3.6 per 1,000 inhabitants according to 13,313 city, county, and state police agencies reporting in 1999. Collectively employing 637,551 officers and 261,567 civilians, these agencies provided law enforcement service to approximately 253 million U.S. inhabitants. A listing of reported full-time law enforcement officers and civilian employees by state is shown in Table 77.

Varying demographic traits as well as other jurisdictional characteristics greatly affect the requirements for law enforcement service from one locale to another. The needs of a community having a highly mobile or seasonal population, for example, may be very different from those of a city whose population is relatively stable. Similarly, a small community situated between two large cities may require a greater number of law enforcement personnel than a community of the same size which has no urban center nearby.

The functions of law enforcement are also significantly diverse throughout the Nation. In certain areas, sheriffs' responsibilities are limited almost exclusively to civil functions and/or the administration of the county jail facilities. Likewise, the responsibilities of state police and highway patrol agencies vary from one jurisdiction to another.

In view of these differing service requirements and responsibilities, care should be used when attempting any comparison of law enforcement employee rates. The rates presented in the following tables represent national averages; they should be viewed as guides or indicators, not as recommended or preferred police strengths. Adequate personnel for a specific locale can be determined only after careful study and analysis of the various conditions affecting service requirements in that jurisdiction.

The Nation's cities collectively reported an average of 3.2 law enforcement employees per 1,000 inhabitants. The highest average, 4.4 employees per 1,000 population, was recorded in the Nation's largest cities (over 250,000 in population). Averages of 4.3 and 4.1 were recorded in suburban and rural counties, respectively. (See Table 74.) Regionally, the law enforcement employee rate was 3.8 per 1,000 inhabitants in the Northeast, 3.6 in the South, 2.8 in the Midwest, and 2.5 in the West. (See Table 70.)

Sworn Personnel

Rates based solely on sworn law enforcement personnel (excluding civilians) showed the national average for all cities was 2.5 officers per 1,000 inhabitants. By city population grouping, the rates ranged from 1.8 for cities with populations of 50,000 to 99,999 to 3.2 in both cities with 250,000 or more inhabitants and cities with less than 10,000 inhabitants. Suburban county law enforcement agencies averaged 2.7 officers per 1,000 population, and agencies in rural counties averaged 2.6. (See Table 74.) Geographically, the highest rates of sworn officers to population were recorded in the Northeastern States where there were 2.9 officers per 1,000 inhabitants. Those rates were followed by the Southern States with 2.8, the Midwestern States with 2.3, and the Western States with 1.8.

Males comprised 89 percent of all sworn employees nationally and in cities collectively. Ninety-two percent of sworn officers in rural counties and 88 percent in suburban counties were male. (See Table 74.)

Civilian Employees

Civilians made up 29 percent of the total United States law enforcement employee force in 1999. They represented 23 percent of the police employees in cities and 38 percent in both suburban and rural counties. Females comprised 64 percent of all civilian employees.

Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted

During 1999, there were 42 law enforcement officers feloniously slain in the line of duty, 19 fewer than in 1998. Accidents occurring in the performance of official duties claimed the lives of an additional 65 officers in 1999. The 1999 total for officers accidentally killed was 16 lower than the 1998 total of 81.

Extensive data on line-of-duty deaths and assaults on city, county, state, and federal officers can be found in the Uniform Crime Reports publication, Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted.

Table 70

Full-time Law Enforcement Employees

1

as of October 31, 1999

Number and Rate per 1,000 Inhabitants Geographic Region and Division by Population Group [1999 estimated population] Population group Geographic region/division

Total (10,253 cities; population 170,645,000)

Group I (66 cities, 250,000 and over; population 48,322,000) Group II (149 cities, 100,000 to 249,999; population 22,013,000) Group III (362 cities, 50,000 to 99,999; population 24,744,000) Group IV (713 cities, 25,000 to 49,999; population 24,601,000) Group V (1,743 cities, 10,000 to 24,999; population 27,405,000) Group VI (7,220 cities, under 10,000; population 23,560,000)

TOTAL: 10,253 cities; population 170,645,000: Number of employees 549,320 210,353 56,772 58,914 58,463 67,436 97,382 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 3.2 4.4 2.6 2.4 2.4 2.5 4.1

New England: 741 cities; population 11,856,000:

Number of employees 32,364 2,871 4,435 5,999 6,638 6,965 5,456 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 2.7 5.1 3.8 2.6 2.3 2.3 3.0

Middle Atlantic: 1,615 cities; population 28,834,000:

Number of employees 123,073 74,737 3,885 8,411 10,781 12,732 12,527 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 4.3 7.6 3.4 2.6 2.5 2.1 2.8

NORTHEAST: 2,356 cities; population 40,690,000: Number of employees 155,437 77,608 8,320 14,410 17,419 19,697 17,983 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 3.8 7.5 3.6 2.6 2.5 2.2 2.8

East North Central: 1,935 cities; population 30,140,000:

Number of employees 87,301 29,564 6,681 10,236 12,261 13,956 14,603 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 2.9 4.5 2.5 2.3 2.2 2.3 3.2

West North Central: 900 cities; population 11,540,000:

Number of employees 29,061 7,711 2,965 3,243 3,503 4,810 6,829 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 2.5 3.7 2.3 1.8 1.9 2.2 3.0

MIDWEST: 2,835 cities; population 41,680,000: Number of employees 116,362 37,275 9,646 13,479 15,764 18,766 21,432 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 2.8 4.3 2.4 2.1 2.1 2.3 3.1

South Atlantic: 1,674 cities; population 19,149,000:

Number of employees 79,911 19,045 11,645 9,881 7,804 9,983 21,553 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 4.2 4.5 3.2 3.4 3.3 3.5 6.9

East South Central: 875 cities; population 8,424,000:

Number of employees 34,246 7,831 4,191 2,028 3,381 5,292 11,523 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 4.1 4.8 3.1 3.2 3.0 3.1 5.9

West South Central: 1,183 cities; population 20,339,000:

Number of employees 60,537 23,250 7,541 5,617 4,856 6,755 12,518 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 3.0 3.0 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.6 4.7

SOUTH: 3,732 cities; population 47,912,000: Number of employees 174,694 50,126 23,377 17,526 16,041 22,030 45,594 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 3.6 3.7 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.1 5.9

Mountain: 571 cities; population 11,817,000:

Number of employees 32,702 13,465 4,611 3,427 2,711 2,938 5,550 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 2.8 3.0 2.2 2.1 2.3 2.6 4.4

Pacific: 759 cities; population 28,546,000:

Number of employees 70,125 31,879 10,818 10,072 6,528 4,005 6,823 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 2.5 2.8 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.1 5.1

WEST: 1,330 cities; population 40,363,000: Number of employees 102,827 45,344 15,429 13,499 9,239 6,943 12,373 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 2.5 2.9 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.3 4.7

Suburban Area and County

2

Suburban Area: 6,241 agencies; population 102,099,000: County: 3,060 agencies; population 82,597,000:

Number of employees 370,464 Number of employees 349,798 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 3.6 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 4.2

1 Includes civilians.

2 Suburban area includes suburban city and county law enforcement agencies within metropolitan areas. Excludes central cities. Suburban cities and counties are also included in other groups. County includes total of suburban and rural counties.

Population figures were rounded to the nearest thousand. All rates were calculated before rounding.

Table 71

Full-time Law Enforcement Officers as of October 31, 1999

Number and Rate per 1,000 Inhabitants Geographic Region and Division by Population Group [1999 estimated population] Population group Geographic region/division

Total (10,253 cities; population 170,645,000)

Group I (66 cities, 250,000 and over; population 48,322,000) Group II (149 cities, 100,000 to 249,999; population 22,013,000) Group III (362 cities, 50,000 to 99,999; population 24,744,000) Group IV (713 cities, 25,000 to 49,999; population 24,601,000) Group V (1,743 cities, 10,000 to 24,999; population 27,405,000) Group VI (7,220 cities, under 10,000; population 23,560,000)

TOTAL: 10,253 cities; population 170,645,000: Number of officers 420,533 155,439 43,128 45,746 45,923 54,080 76,217 Average number of officers per 1,000 inhabitants 2.5 3.2 2.0 1.8 1.9 2.0 3.2

New England: 741 cities; population 11,856,000:

Number of officers 26,658 2,252 3,662 5,162 5,578 5,755 4,249 Average number of officers per 1,000 inhabitants 2.2 4.0 3.1 2.2 2.0 1.9 2.3

Middle Atlantic: 1,615 cities; population 28,834,000:

Number of officers 93,253 52,186 3,343 7,002 9,001 10,902 10,819 Average number of officers per 1,000 inhabitants 3.2 5.3 2.9 2.2 2.1 1.8 2.4

NORTHEAST: 2,356 cities; population 40,690,000: Number of officers 119,911 54,438 7,005 12,164 14,579 16,657 15,068 Average number of officers per 1,000 inhabitants 2.9 5.3 3.0 2.2 2.1 1.8 2.4

East North Central: 1,935 cities; population...

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