Section VI - Law Enforcement Personnel

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SECTION VI

Law Enforcement Personnel

The Nation's law enforcement community employed an average of 2.4 full-time officers for every 1,000 inhabitants as of October 31, 1995. Including full-time civilians, the overall law enforcement employee rate was 3.3 per 1,000 inhabitants according to 13,052 city, county, and state police agencies reporting in 1995. These agencies collectively employed 586,756 officers and 226,780 civilians, giving law enforcement service to over 245 million U.S. inhabitants. A listing of reported full-time law enforcement officers and civilian employees by state is shown in Table 77.

Varying demographic and other characteristics greatly affect the requirements for law enforcement service from one locale to another. The needs of a community having a highly mobile or seasonal population, for example, may be very different from those of a city whose population is relatively stable. Similarly, a small community situated between two large cities may require a greater number of law enforcement personnel than a community of the same size which has no urban centers nearby.

The functions of law enforcement are also significantly diverse throughout the Nation. In certain areas, sheriffs' responsibilities are limited almost exclusively to civil functions and/or the administration of the county jail facilities. Likewise, the responsibilities of state police and highway patrol agencies vary from one jurisdiction to another.

In view of these differing responsibilities and service requirements, care should be used when attempting any comparison of law enforcement employee rates. The rates presented in the following tables represent national averages; they should be viewed as guides or indicators, not as recommended or desirable police strengths. Adequate personnel for a specific locale can be determined only after careful study and analysis of the various conditions affecting service requirements in that jurisdiction.

Nationwide, cities collectively reported an average of 3.0 law enforcement employees per 1,000 inhabitants in 1995. The highest average among the city population groupings, 3.9 employees per 1,000 population, was recorded in cities with over 250,000 inhabitants. Rural and suburban county law enforcement agencies averaged full-time law enforcement employee rates of 4.4 and 3.8 per 1,000 population, respectively. (See Table 74.) Regionally, the law enforcement employee rate was 3.3 in the Northeast and in the South, 2.7 in the Midwest, and 2.5 in the West. (See Table 70.)

Sworn Personnel

Rates based solely on sworn law enforcement personnel (excluding civilians) showed the national average for all cities was 2.3 officers per 1,000 inhabitants. By city population grouping, the rates ranged from 1.8 for cities with populations of 25,000 to 99,999 to 3.1 in cities with 250,000 or more inhabitants. Suburban county law enforcement agencies averaged 2.4 officers per 1,000 population, while agencies in rural counties averaged 2.8. (See Table 71.) Geographically, the highest rate of officers to population was recorded in the Northeastern States where there were 2.7 officers per 1,000 inhabitants. Following were the Southern States with 2.6, the Midwestern States with 2.2, and the Western States with 1.8.

Males comprised 90 percent of all sworn employees both nationally and in cities. Ninety-three percent of those in rural counties and 88 percent in suburban counties were males.

Civilian Employees

Civilians made up 28 percent of the total United States law enforcement employee force in 1995. They represented 22 percent of the police employees in cities, 36 percent in rural counties, and 38 percent of the suburban county law enforcement strength. Sixty-two percent of all civilian employees were females.

Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted

Seventy-four law enforcement officers were feloniously slain in the line of duty during 1995, 3 fewer than in 1994. Accidents occurring while performing official duties claimed the lives of an additional 53 officers in 1995. The 1995 total for officers accidentally killed was 9 lower than the 1994 total of 62.

Extensive data on line-of-duty deaths and assaults on city, county, state, and federal officers can be found in the Uniform Crime Reporting publication, Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted.

Table 70.-Full-time Law Enforcement Employees,

1

Number and Rate per 1,000 Inhabitants, Geographic Region and Division by Population Group, October 31, 1995

[1995 estimated population] Population group

(9,970 cities; population 165,542,000)

Group I (64 cities, 250,000 and over; population 46,205,000) Group II (142 cities, 100,000 to 249,999; population 20,866,000) Group III (360 cities, 50,000 to 99,999; population 24,505,000) Group IV (684 cities, 25,000 to 49,999; population 23,564,000) Group V (1,699 cities, 10,000 to 24,999; population 26,730,000) Group VI (7,021 cities, under 10,000; population 23,672,000) Geographic region/division

492,201

181,995

53,113

55,504

53,532

TOTAL: 9,970 cities; population 165,542,000: Number of employees

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants

. . .

3.0

3.9

2.5

2.3

2.3

2.4

3.6

62,930

85,127

New England: 703 cities; population 11,761,000:

Number of employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants . . . . .

2.6

5.2

30,600

2,854

3.6

2.4

2.2

2.2

2.8

4,142

6,023

6,029

6,605

4,947

103,601

57,887

5,441

7,813

10,020

11,769

10,671

Middle Atlantic: 1,600 cities; population 28,874,000:

Number of employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants . . . . .

3.6

5.9

3.3

2.4

2.5

2.1

2.3

NORTHEAST: 2,303 cities; population 40,635,000: Number of employees

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants

. . .

3.3

5.9

3.4

2.4

2.4

2.1

2.5

134,201

60,741

9,583

13,836

16,049

18,374

15,618

East North Central: 1,905 cities; population 28,295,000:

Number of employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants . . . . .

2.8

4.9

79,139

27,315

2.3

2.1

2.0

2.1

2.9

5,619

9,485

10,239

13,160

13,321

27,025

7,317

2,858

2,835

3,304

4,560

6,151

West North Central: 859 cities; population 11,276,000:

Number of employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants . . . . .

2.4

3.5

2.2

1.7

1.8

2.1

2.8

MIDWEST: 2,764 cities; population 39,571,000: Number of employees

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants

. . .

2.7

4.5

106,164

2.3

2.0

2.0

2.1

2.8

34,632

8,477

12,320

13,543

17,720

19,472

South Atlantic: 1,636 cities; population 19,080,000:

Number of employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants . . . . .

3.9

4.3

3.2

3.2

3.1

3.5

5.9

74,809

17,181

11,419

10,100

6,970

9,955

19,184

27,567

7,121

3,585

1,390

3,130

4,639

7,702

East South Central: 821 cities; population 8,831,000:

Number of employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

West South Central: 1,125 cities; population 19,423,000:

Number of employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants . . . . .

3.1

3.1

2.8

2.7

2.8

2.8

4.0

56,128

Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants . . . . .

2.9

3.1

2.4

2.3

2.3

2.4

4.3

22,243

6,153

5,665

4,535

6,219

11,313

SOUTH: 3,582 cities; population 47,334,000: Number of employees

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants

. . .

3.3

3.4

2.8

2.8

2.7

2.9

4.9

158,504

46,545

21,157

17,155

14,635

20,813

38,199

Mountain: 573 cities; population 10,793,000:

Number of employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants . . . . .

2.6

2.7

2.3

1.9

2.3

2.4

4.2

28,161

11,326

3,489

3,361

2,387

2,298

5,300

65,171

28,751

10,407

8,832

6,918

3,725

6,538

Pacific: 748 cities; population 27,209,000:

Number of employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants . . . . .

2.4

2.8

1.9

1.9

2.0

2.2

4.5

WEST: 1,321 cities; population 38,002,000: Number of employees

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants

. . .

2.5

2.7

2.0

1.9

2.0

2.2

4.3

93,332

40,077

13,896

12,193

9,305

6,023

11,838

Suburban and County

Suburban:2 6,143 agencies; population 100,836,000: County: 3,082 agencies; population 80,304,000:

Number of employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327,493 Number of employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321,335 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.0

6,143 agencies;

population 100,836,000: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

327,493

75.7

24.3

225,217

90.8

9.2

102,276

42.3

57.7

6,143 agencies; population 100,836,000: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1Includes suburban city and county law enforcement agencies within metropolitan areas. Excludes central cities. Suburban cities and counties are also included in other groups.

Table 76.-Full-time State Law Enforcement Employees, October 31, 1995

Number of law enforcement employees Number of law enforcement employees State State Officers Male Civilians Male Officers Male Civilians Male Female Female Female...

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