SECTION II Crime Index Offenses Reported
CRIME IN THE UNITED STATES 2001 9
Crime Index Total
The Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program's Crime Index is composed of selected offenses used to gauge fluctuations in the volume and rate of crime reported to law enforcement. These selected offenses include the violent crimes of murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault, and the property crimes of burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft. The crime classifications were selected at the inception of the UCR Program in 1929 because they were considered by law enforcement and criminologists of the time to be the most serious and the most commonly reported crimes occurring in all areas of the Nation. Arson was added to the Index in 1979 by congressional mandate, and the UCR Program established the Modified Crime Index to include arson.
More information regarding the Crime Index can be found in Appendix II of this report.
Rate per 100,000 Year Number of offenses inhabitants 2000 11,608,070 4,124.8 2001 11,849,006 4,160.5
Percent change +2.1 +0.9 ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
Special Note Regarding the Events of September 11, 2001
Due to the unique nature and the statistical implications inherent in the events of September 11, 2001, the crimes committed in those attacks are not included in the UCR Program's offense rate, trend, or clearance data. Information regarding the September attacks are provided in a special report in this publication.
(See Section V.)
National Offenses, Trends, and Rates
The estimated number of Crime Index offenses for 2001 was 11,849,006. This number reflects an increase of 2.1 percent from the 2000 estimate, the first increase since 1991. However, when looking at 5- and 10-year trends, the 2001 figure represents a 10.2-percent decrease from the 1997 figure and also a 17.9-percent decline from the 1992 level. (See Table 1.) In 2001, violent crime comprised 12.1 percent and property crime accounted for 87.9 percent of the Crime Index total. The property crime of larceny-theft, which comprised 59.7 percent of the Crime Index, was the most frequently occurring of all Index crimes, with an estimated 7,076,171 offenses. The violent crime of murder, which accounted for 0.1 percent of the Crime Index, occurred least frequently with an estimated total of 15,980 offenses. (See Table 1.) An estimated monetary value of $17.1 billion in stolen property was reported in 2001. Thefts of motor vehicles accounted for the greatest monetary loss, followed by thefts of jewelry and precious metals; currency, notes, etc.; and televisions, radios, stereos, etc.
Crime Index Total by Month
Percent Distribution, 1997-2001
Month 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
January 8.2 8.5 8.0 7.7 7.7 February 7.3 7.5 7.2 7.3 6.8 March 8.0 8.2 8.0 8.2 7.9 April 8.0 8.0 7.9 8.0 8.1 May 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.7 8.6 June 8.5 8.5 8.6 8.6 8.5 July 9.1 9.0 9.1 9.1 9.0 August 9.0 9.0 9.2 9.1 8.9 September 8.6 8.4 8.5 8.5 8.5 October 8.7 8.5 8.7 8.8 9.1 November 7.9 7.8 8.2 8.0 8.3 December 8.3 8.2 8.4 7.9 8.5
10 CRIME INDEX OFFENSES REPORTED An estimated 32.4 percent of property reported stolen in 2001 was recovered. Property types with the greatest percentage of recoveries were motor vehicles, clothing and furs, livestock, and consumable goods. (See Table 24.) The Crime Index rate per 100,000 inhabitants in 2001 was 4,160.5, a 0.9-percent increase from the 2000 rate. In addition, this number
reflected a 15.6-percent decrease from the 1997 rate
and a 26.5-percent decline from the 1992 rate. (See Table 1.)
Regional Offense Distributions and Rates
The United States is divided into four regions: the Northeast, the Midwest, the South, and the West. (See Appendix III.) In 2001, data collected regarding the Nation's four regions reflect the following:
The Northeast The Northeast comprised 18.9 percent of the Nation's population in 2001 and posted 13.7 percent of the Crime Index offenses reported to the UCR Program.
(See Table 3.) The Northeast was the only region to experience decreases in the number of offenses and the rate per 100,000 inhabitants in 2001. This region showed a 1.5-percent decrease in Crime Index offenses from 2000 and a 1.9-percent decline in the rate per 100,000 inhabitants. (See Table 4.) The Midwest The Midwest, which accounted for 22.7 percent of the U.S. population, recorded 21.7 percent of the Nation's Crime Index offenses in 2001. (See Table 3.) This region experienced an increase in both the volume (1.6 percent) and the rate of Crime Index offenses per 100,000 persons (1.1 percent) over the prior year's volume and rate. (See Table 4.) The South The South, the Nation's most populous region in 2001, comprised 35.8 percent of the total population and experienced 40.9 percent of the total Crime Index offenses. (See Table 3.) The number of offenses reported in this region increased 1.9 percent from the 2000 level. The Crime Index rate per 100,000 inhabitants increased 0.3 percent. (See Table 4.) The West The West
which constituted 22.6 percent of the population, accounted for 23.7 percent of the Nation's Crime Index offenses. (See Table 3.) In 2001, this region had a 5.1-percent increase in the number of offenses compared to 2000 levels and a 3.0-percent increase in rate. (See Table 4.)
The UCR Program's data are often presented in aggregations representing three types of communities: Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) which made up approximately 80 percent of the total U.S. population in 2001, cities outside MSAs which comprised approximately 8 percent of the Nation's population, and rural counties which accounted for approximately 12 percent of the U.S. population during 2001. (See Appendix III and Table 2.) In 2001, the Nation's MSAs experienced an Index crime rate of 4,474.9 per 100,000 persons. Cities outside of MSAs had a crime rate of 4,450.4 per 100,000 inhabitants, and rural counties had a crime rate of 1,892.4 per 100,000 persons. (See Table 2.)
Population Groups Trends and Rates
The population group classifications used by the UCR Program comprise six city and two county designations. (See Appendix III for more information on population groups.) In 2001, the Nation's cities collectively experienced an increase of 2.0 percent in the total number of crimes reported and had a rate of 5,124.8 Index crimes per 100,000 inhabitants. Additionally, suburban counties and rural counties experienced increases in total crimes reported-2.4 percent and 1.9 percent, respectively-with rates of 3,038.9 and 1,979.2 Crime Index offenses per 100,000 persons, respectively. (See Tables 12 and 16.) Within city groupings, the largest increase of reported crime, 4.1 percent, was in cities with populations of 250,000 to 499,999. The smallest change in volume from 2000, a 0.5 percent increase, occurred in cities with populations of 1 million and over. In 2001, cities with populations spanning 500,000 to 999,999 had a rate of 7,328.0 Crime Index offenses per 100,000
CRIME IN THE UNITED STATES 2001 11 inhabitants, the highest among the Nation's cities. Cities with populations of 10,000 to 24,999 had the lowest rate of offenses per 100,000 inhabitants-3,875.4. (See Tables 12 and 16.)
Clearances occur either by arrest or by exceptional means, i.e. when circumstances beyond the control of law enforcement prevent the placing of formal charges against the offender. (More information regarding clearances can be found in Section III of this report.) In 2001, 19.6 percent of Crime Index offenses were cleared overall. Law enforcement nationwide cleared 16.2 percent of property crimes and 46.2 percent of violent crimes. (See Table 25.) Among the Crime Index offenses in 2001, murder was the offense cleared most often- 62.4 percent. Burglary offenses experienced the lowest percentage of clearances-12.7 percent. (See Table 25.) Clearances and Juveniles When an offender under the age of 18 is cited to appear in juvenile court or before other juvenile authorities, the UCR Program records that incident as clearance by arrest, even though a physical arrest may not have occurred. In addition, according to Program definitions, clearances involving both adult and juvenile offenders are classified as adult clearances.
Nationally, 18.6 percent of the total clearances for 2001 involved only persons under the age of 18. The Crime Index offense with the highest percentage of juvenile clearances was larceny-theft (21.9 percent). The offense with the lowest percentage of juvenile clearances (5.0 percent) was murder and nonnegligent manslaughter. Arson is typically an offense with a large involvement of juvenile offenders; of arson offenses cleared, 45.5 percent involved only juvenile offenders. (See Table 28.)
Total Arrests The estimated total of Crime Index offense arrests for 2001 was 2,245,597, approximately 16.4 percent of the U.S. total estimated arrests. Of that total, approximately 27.9 percent were arrests made for violent crimes and 72.1 percent were arrests for property crimes. Larceny-theft arrests accounted for 71.7 percent of all property crime arrests. Aggravated assaults made up the greatest portion, 76.2 percent, of violent crime arrests. (See Table 29.) Arrest Trends The total Crime Index arrests for all ages for 2001 declined slightly-0.7 percent-from 2000 levels. In viewing the data by age, the total number of adults arrested increased 1.0 percent from the 2000 figure, and the total number of juvenile arrests declined 5.0 percent when compared to the previous year's number.
Arrests for arson offenses increased more than arrests for any other Index crime category...