This article is about allocating scarce resources, building relationships, and displaying United States (U.S.) Support to our Baltic region partners. Operation Atlantic Resolve (OAR) was the first in a series of U.S. land force training activities taking place through the next several months and beyond in Poland and the Baltic region.
These exercises were conducted by U.S. Army Europe (USAREUR) Soldiers and Host Nation forces as a demonstration of U.S. commitment to North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) defense with ground and air presence. Participants and locations in the recent missions included the 173rd Airborne Brigade in support of forces from Poland, Lithuania, Estonia, and Latvia.
The OAR mission results from a unique agreement, as well as behind the scenes support from the office of the USAREUR G8. The goal of this article is to share information on who was involved, their efforts, and how we achieved OAR mission success. I will briefly explain the exercise support agreement (ESA) process used to coordinate doctrinal orders in a non-directive, multi-national environment. I also will cover the three-phased support to OAR with details leading to a basic understanding of ESAs and the team involved.
Given the United States' partnership role with its Baltic partners, as well as recent military conflicts in the Ukraine, USAREUR activated an operational planning team (OPT) to enable key staff and other players to think through initial, Immediate, and longterm requirements for support. The team consisted of USAREUR staff representatives from the G1, G2, G35, G6, G7, G8, Deputy Chief of Staff Engineers, and the Public Affairs Office; other planners from the USAREUR Headquarters and Headquarters Battalion; members of the 21st Theater Sustainment Command; and the 173rd Brigade Combat Team. The planning team met dally over several weeks to identify Immediate requirements for life support, logistics, and requirements to Include both In the ESA and in an Acquisition and Cross Servicing Agreement (ACSA).
During Phase I, the USAREUR G8, International Agreements Division (IAD) played a significant role in planning, negotiating and coordinating efforts. The IAD researched existing U.S. Host Nation Agreements Including other ACSAs, as well as Status of Forces Agreements (SOFAs). A SOFA establishes the rights and privileges of foreign personnel present In a host country in support of the NATO security arrangement. An ACSA provides "Authority" (in the form of an International Agreement) to the U.S. military to acquire, sell, and exchange logistical support, supplies, and services (LSSS) from/to designated foreign countries and International Organizations.
An ACSA establishes a mechanism to provide LSSS between two parties in exchange for reimbursement either in cash, replacement In kind, or an equal value exchange. Although an ACSA does not commit a country to military action, the agreement simplifies...