Personal and psychological factors-does it impact the choice of advertising medium?

Author:Idris, Izian


Personal factors and psychological factors may create different perception towards different media. For example, according to Chang (9) gender may play an important role in determining the relative effectiveness of comparative and non-comparative advertising appeals. Nowadays, people are moving towards online advertising, mobile advertising or well known as wireless advertising. Mobile marketing provides new revenue streams and opportunities for subsidized access, along with the potential for customers to experience more convenient and relevant content value, sponsored by advertising (3). Attitude towards ads is conceptualized as a consequence of two psychological motives in wireless internet adoption: Perceived infotainment and perceived irritation (39). Psychological factors such as status and personality have droved the consumers' to go for different types of advertising medium. Consumer acceptance and their perceptions of the delivered content of wireless advertising are crucial (6).

Understanding consumers is a basic tenet of marketing and advertising (5). The integration of advertising medium between traditional and online advertising also has become more and more popular nowadays. Newspaper websites are attracting a lot of readers and is considered a lucrative online ADEX (advertising expenditure) market (1). All media companies-newspapers, magazines, broadcasters, service providers, yellow pages and pure-plays that operate exclusively online-are looking to monetize their digital information with both display advertising and performance advertising

Literature review: All consumers' have their own favorite advertising medium. Some people prefer television commercials (especially children) and there are people who prefer new types of advertising. For example wireless advertising. Okazaki (39) claim most of the Japanese mobile users are willing to use wireless advertising and keen to 'click' such ads. In fact nowadays most people around the world are able to receive wireless advertisements since most people own mobile phones. Age, gender, personality have always being used in many study to see whether it affect consumer behavior. Unlike other media, however, advertising is more pervasive in people's lives, increasing the likelihood that consumers outside a target market will be exposed to messages that are not intended for their viewing. It is increasingly simple for these consumers to pass along negative word-of-mouth through web logs ("Blogs") and other new media technologies (11). Understanding consumers' personal and psychological factors perspective is particularly important and may possess strong purchase influence behavior and brand recall towards the product, services and companies.

Advertising as marketing tools: Advertising is an important part to the marketers for promotional mix. Its helps in creating brand image and product awareness. Advertising is one of the most popular tools that are used by the companies for convince and communicate with the target buyers and customers.

There are many different ways of defining advertising and whether it is the traditional way, or its interactive part, definitions vary from mindset to mindset. Whether in the form of online or traditional, the purpose of advertisement will be to persuade and attract people to the product, services or even brand. Not only must the advertisement effectively communication the desired message, but the individual audience must be willing to "buy into" the desired message. In other words, for the advertisement to be effective, the communication must be sent and received.

The designation of advertising certainly reflects the claimed desire of most marketing practitioners to communicate openly and honestly with consumers. Indeed the law in most countries forbids false or deceptive advertising. Marketers justify advertising by arguing that advertising is intrinsic to markets and fundamentally beneficial to the customer (25).

Jaishri and Shruti (25) cited that advertising is one of the largest generators of revenue in the world economy. It moves markets and minds. It generates employment both directly and indirectly and influences a large section of the people. Advertising interests, entices, intrigues and entertains. It creates lifestyles. It involves people with products; it aims at building relationships between customers and brands.

The effects of attitudes toward the media and subsequent influence on the attitudes toward advertising in the media cannot be underestimated. A key assumption in the theory of uses and gratifications was that audiences have individual needs (i.e., cognitive, affective, interactive and many more. Motivating them to be in favor of one medium over another one when making a choice for media use. Attitudes toward media, therefore, were developed in the selecting process (42).

The technique of advertising is to correlate feelings, moods or attributes to tangible objects, linking possible unattainable things with those that are attainable and thus reassuring us that the former are within reach" (47). For managers, this study underlines the need to avoid misleading advertising messages in the first place. Revelations of deceptive advertising have the power to adversely affect advertising as a whole, not just the specific firm involved in the deception. For regulators, the findings suggest that careful consideration must be given to the punitive effects that such practices can have by reinforcing negative attitudes toward advertising as a whole (14).

William, Sandra, John and May (46) declare that persuasion sometimes uses the psychological appeal of the product to the consumer as the focus of a message strategy. An appeal connects with some emotion that makes the product particularly attractive or interesting, such as security, esteem, fears, sex and sensory pleasure. Although emotion is at the base of most appeals, in some situations appeals can also be logical, such as saving money for retirement. Appeals generally pinpoint the anticipated response of the audience to the product and the message. For example, if the price is emphasized in the ad, then the appeal is value, economy or savings. If the product saves time or effort, then the appeal is convenience. Advertisers use a status appeal to establish something as a high quality, expensive product.

Gender and age roles: Most basic research has revealed that males and females respond differently to the images they see in print, television, radio and internet and wireless advertisements. There has been considerable recent interest in the possible contributions of the mass media to the origins and maintenance of gender roles (12), (13), (16), (19), (20), (29), (38). For example, notes that it is regarded as more effective to target men with...

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