PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT AND ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR: EXPLORING THE INTERELATEDNESS THROUGH CROSS VALIDATION.

Author:Chahar, Bhawna
Position:Abstract
 
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INTRODUCTION

Human Resource Management has witnessed a phenomenal growth and today, it is playing a key role in enhancing organisational competitiveness. It is playing multiple roles for complete growth and development of organization. The development of psychological contract has become important function of human resource management in any organization because it may help the employees and employers get rid of a complicated employment relationship (Sonnenberg et al., 2011). It does not help employer only in evaluating employees, but it contributes a lot in developing organization. The study on psychological contract has grown significantly in last few decades and is being used extensively now in Human Resource Management discipline. The psychological contract is utilised as one of the important tool to resolve many Human Resource (HR) related issues. In the present dynamic environmental condition, where the employees' mobility has grown significantly and thought towards employee's satisfaction as well as motivation are becoming insignificant, psychological contract has transpired as useful integrative concept with most of excising and emerging work place concern converge around it. Marks (2010) in his study revealed positive association among the employee's Psychological Contract (PC) and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) of the employees in the organisation. The process of globalization, privatization, liberalization of economy, government deregulation of its policies, various technological improvement and technological innovations, social changes, political changes at national and international level, and many national as well as international economic events has given novel shape to employment trends (Todnem, 2005). Robinson & Morrison (1995) in their study on relationship between psychological contract and organizational citizenship behavior confirm that psychological contract has an impact on organizational citizenship behavior. As a result, the employees are forced to re check their psychological contract, which underlies their organizational relationship (Bellou, 2007). It was revealed that employees are more likely to perform better in certain work environments. Due to the changing employment relationship situation, a mental contract has been considered an important construct for explaining employment relationship. Continuing this, Robinson & Morrison (1994) explained that organizational citizenship behavior can be well described through psychological contract. Organizational Citizenship Behavior is gaining importance and drawn the attention of management professionals across the various industries. From these studies, we have indications that the construct of psychological contracts do have relevance for increasing our understanding of employee employer relationship from social exchange perspectives. As a consequence, an understanding psychological contract and their influence on organizational citizenship behavior is needed to be analysed. In the present paper, we first try to explore the construct of psychological contract and then start linking it to dependent variables i.e. organizational citizenship behaviour. The entire paper is structured in the following way. First a brief theoretical background regarding psychological contracts and organizational citizenship behavior and then then their interrelatedness is given. It was followed by objective and methodology. Thereafter, the empirical findings are presented. The paper ends with an analysis of the research findings, a discussion section and suggestions for further research.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Psychological Contract

The psychological contract concept originated in 1960 (Argyris, 1960) and further developed by American academician, Denise Rousseau. Denise Rousseau describes it as the existence of the understandings, beliefs and commitments of employees with the employer. Basically, it is a feeling of the employees which is not documented and it is very intangible in nature. The Psychological contract theory was proposed by Blau in 1964 and emphasis on developing social relationships, mutual obligations and power distribution (Blau, 1964). Similar work on construct related to social exchange theory used for organizational can be seen in the studies done by Argyris (1960), Levinson (1965), and Schein (1965:1978). Different authors have highlighted the Psychological contract in different ways, but mutual reciprocal relationship remained the central theme among all researchers (Rosseau & Tijoriwala, 1998; Atkinson 2002; Tekleab & Taylor, 2003). However, all idea behind the psychological contract emphasis on developing the employee's positive attitude and better organizational citizenship behavior.

In general, the psychological contract is the individual's perception of mutual obligations and expresses the mental picture of an individual obligation with counterpart obligation in a specific relationship (Rousseau, 2001). These obligations may be written or unwritten in the form of discussion. Several other authors like Rousseau (1989), Kickul & Lester (2001) have suggested the various dimension of psychological contract like relational contract, employer employee relationship, internal advancement, emotional affinity and transactional relationship.

These dimensions of psychological contract have relationship with cognitive response of the employee and thus strengthen the organizational citizenship behavior of employee (Hess & Jepsen, 2009).

Organizational Citizenship Behavior

The organizational citizenship is a perspective an employee has towards organization while extending his behavior beyond the normal duties of his/her position. In simple term, organizational citizenship behavior is the desirable organizational behaviors that explain the nature of relationship with positive organizational consequence (Walz & Niehoff (1996). Organ (1988) explained it as significant work behaviors that unfold behavior of individual beneficial to organization. Author emphasis that these behaviors are the matter of personal choice. Several literatures in the past have recognized the two-basic approach in behavior that is the role as well as extra role in describing OCB view. The research on dimension of organization citizenship behavior was carried out by Smith et al., 1983 and it was found that citizenship behavior consists of 2 dimensions. The first dimension is the altruism, or helping to specific persons, and second dimension is the generalized compliance which is more impersonal form of diligent citizenship. To my mind, for achieving better citizenship behavior, Organization needs to recognize the psychological contract employee carries with the organization (Byoung et al., 2014). Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) was measure on the following dimension like Altruism, Courtesy, Conscientiousness, Civic Virtue and Sportsmanship (Organ, 1988; Williams & Anderson, 1991).

Psychological Contract and Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Most studies about association amongst psychological contract and organizational citizenship behavior indicated that when there will be resemblance of employer and employee in their expectation, the organizational outcome would be positive. Robinson & Morrison (1995) in their study on relationship between psychological contract and organizational citizenship behavior tested the relationship of two elements of PC i.e. Relational as well as Transactional Contract with five components of OCB (Altruism, Compliance, Sportsmanship, Courtesy, Civic virtue) and found that OCB is related to PC. Similar contribution were made by the other researcher like Argyris (1960); Rousseau (1989); Guest (2016); Van den Heuvel et al. (2015), Panaccio et al. (2015); Low et al. (2016), Karagonlar et al. (2016).

Creating positive work environment is the pre-requisite for the success of any organization. Several authors like Beardwell et al., 2004; Karagonlar et al., 2016; Low et al., 2016; Sparrow, 1998 believe psychological contracts are developed to bring constancy in the work environment strengthening the employee employer relations. Hui et al. (2004) in their study has tried to establish relationship between PC and OCB and finding suggested that out of transactional and relational contract, the relational contract have comparatively strong effect on citizenship behaviors. Kiazad et al. (2014) Panaccio et al. (2015); Chen & Kao (2012); Priesemuth & Taylor (2016); Coyle-Shapiro & Kessler (2000) believed when employee feel that organization meets their anticipations and emphasize upon establishing a long-lasting relation, the strong citizenship is reflected in their behavior. Similar study was undertaken by Bang et al. (2016) to examine Organizational citizenship behavior among primary school teachers in Taiwan by joining the two heterogeneous perspective, integration of factors related to OCB by usage of both perspectives organizational as well as personal. It was found that Expected Psychological

Contract (EPC) moderate the Organizational Identification (OID) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). On reviewing the number of research paper nationally and internationally and critically evaluating them, the below mentioned hypotheses is proposed:

H0: The psychological contract has no significant impact on organizational citizenship behavior of employee.

H1: The psychological contract has significant impact on organizational citizenship behavior of employee. Research Problem

Higher education institution has witnessed a phenomenal growth in the state of Uttarakhand and is playing an essential role in shaping the society and preparing human resources for maintaining the economy of the state as well as of the...

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