PositionLIFE - CYCLE STUDIES - Brief article

Modern concrete's main ingredient, cement, is most commonly produced using a method invented by Englishman Joseph Aspdin in 1824. His Portland cement (named after the limestone used in St. Paul's Cathedral and Buckingham Palace) mixes a powder of alumina, silica, lim, iron oxide, and magnesium oxide, which is then heated at temperatures up to 1,450 degrees Celsius.


Heating and grinding the cement materials consumes an average of 4-5 gigajoules of energy per cement ton. The industry as a whole uses at least 8 billion gigajoules each year. Cement production--through cement plants' fossil-based energy consumption, the [CO.sub.2] burned off when limestone is heated, associated vehicle use, and other factors--accounts for about 6 percent of global...

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