Urban characteristics are related to the quality of the population which is characterized by three characteristics: dependence on the money economy (commoditization), poor living environment (environmental hazards) and social life of individualistic (social fragmentation) (Brierley, 2017; Ferre et al., 2010). Urban poverty has a multidimensional phenomenon which includes low levels of income, health and education, housing and personal vulnerability, and powerlessness. Some previous studies describe that cities with high economic growth do not guarantee reduced levels of poverty. Income gaps are very likely to occur in several cities in the world. Poor people's access to resources and essential services is also not comparable to other residents. Likewise with the fact of low social protection and personal security guarantees.
The level of urban poverty in Indonesia has increased; in 2012 the level of poverty was 8.4 percent of the total population of Indonesia. In 2013, this value increased to 8.5 percent and decreased to 8.2 percent in 2014. Makassar City also facing the problem of poverty. The number of people living below the poverty line in 2016 reached 66,780 people or 4.56 percent of the total population in Makassar City (Rasyid et al., 2018). The increase in the poor population is related to the rapid growth of the region and is the destination of population migration from several other regions in Eastern Indonesia. The increasing of the low-income population has implications for increasing the urban poor. The fact of poverty in the city of Makassar is also characterized by a very different tendency to spread. This condition has an impact on the difficulty of finding the right solution to overcome the poverty problem of the city. Some government programs have been carried out as well as many in other areas but are still considered to be a failure.
The culture of poverty in developing countries like Indonesia is strongly influenced by the low access to education and health for the poor. This fact causes the low motivation of the poor to take a higher level of education, and most of them only get an education in elementary school. Theory Lewis explains that the culture of poverty is the cause of the increasing number of poor people (Lewis, 1969). Furthermore, Chambers explained that access to education is one of the poverty disadvantages. This tension occurs in a long period and makes it difficult for the poor to get out of their difficulties (Chambers, 2007). This reference supports researchers choosing institutional factors as a variable that causes low income in society.
Furthermore, Sharp explained that poverty is caused by the low productivity which is equivalent with low income of the family. The social system in Indonesia which adheres to the patrilineal system places women as recipients of income in the family. This system causes women to tend to be passive and have low productivity (Elson & Sharp, 2010). The third variable is the age of the family head poor people with the age of the family head who has not been productive (too young) or past the productive age (too old) cause low productivity. By the concept, researchers chose the variable age of the head of the family as a determinant of family poverty. Overall researchers chose the subject of the head of the family by the theory that family characteristics are strongly influenced by the thoughts of the family leader (Zamagni, 2018)
Various poverty reduction strategies that have been carried out generally involve three sectors namely state, civil society and Non-Government Organization (NGO). The poverty reduction strategy in Indonesia is a national program, but it is the target of countermeasures that are not well targeted so that the poverty rate tends to be stagnant. The right strategy in poverty reduction must start from specific factors that affect poverty and their capacity. Therefore, this study elaborates on the factors that cause poverty related to intra-community factors and optimal poverty reduction strategies. The strategy as the result of research contributes as a policy choice for the central government and local government in reducing poverty. The contribution of research results will have an impact on increasing the economic capacity of the community. This strategy can be a reference for the government...