Probable cause and reasonable suspicion: arrests, seizures, stops and frisks

AuthorDeja Vishny
“… no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause”
—The Fourth Amendment
A. Probable Cause to Arrest
1. Governing Principles
§5:01 Gates Standard: Fair Probability Determined By Totality of Circumstances
§5:02 Older Rule: Aguilar/Spinelli
§5:03 Warrantless Arrests
§5:04 Remedy for Unlawful Arrest
§5:04.1 Arrests Across Jurisdictional Lines
2. Case Examples
§5:05 Probable Cause Found
§5:06 Probable Cause Not Found
3. Common Fact Scenario: Probable Cause to Arrest Suspected Drug Dealer
§5:07 Sample Cross-Examination of Arresting Off‌icer
§5:08 Sample Argument
§5:09 Prosecution Claims Off‌icer Training and Experience Provided Probable Cause
§5:10 Sample Cross-Examination: Training and Experience
§5:11 Sample Argument
§5:12 Governing Principles and Practical Resources
[§§5:13-5:14 Reserved]
B. Probable Cause to Search
1. Governing Principles
§5:15 Distinct from Probable Cause to Arrest
§5:16 Case Examples: Probable Cause Found
§5:17 Case Examples: Probable Cause Not Found
2. Probable Cause to Search Incident to Arrest
§5:18 Sample Fact Scenario
§5:19 Sample Cross-Examination
§5:20 Sample Argument
3. Weapons Searches
§5:21 Overview
§5:22 Sample Fact Scenario
§5:23 Sample Cross-Examination
Suppressing Criminal Evidence 5-2
§5:24 Sample Argument
[§§5:25-5:29 Reserved]
A. Governing Principles
§5:30 “Reasonable Suspicion” Def‌ined
§5:31 Seizure Def‌ined
§5:32 Use of Force
§5:33 Length of Permissible Detentions in Terry Stops
§5:34 Sample Cases
§5:34.1 Reasonable Suspicion Found
§5:34.2 No Reasonable Suspicion Found
§5:34.3 Observation of Person in Possession of Firearm
B. Common Fact Patterns
1. Re-Encounter on Porch; Police Wrongly Claim Reasonable Suspicion
§5:36 Sample Fact Scenario
§5:37 Sample Cross-Examination
§5:38 Sample Argument
2. Scope of Terry Searches
§5:39 Allowable Pat-Downs
§5:39.1 Sample Cases: Frisk for Weapons Deemed Reasonable
§5:39.2 Sample Cases: Frisk for Weapons Deemed Not Reasonable
§5:40 Frisks, “Furtive Gestures,” and the “Plain Feel” Doctrine
§5:40.1 Furtive Gestures as a Justif‌ication for Stops and Pat Downs
§5:40.2 “Plain Feel” Doctrine
§5:41 Sample Fact Scenario
§5:42 Sample Cross-Examination
§5:42.1 No Observation of Client with Blunt
§5:42.2 Client’s Prior Record
§5:42.3 Claim Client Was Nervous
§5:42.4 No Threatening Conduct by Client
§5:43 Sample Argument
3. Stop of Motor Home on Highway
§5:44 Sample Fact Scenario
§5:45 Sample Cross-Examination
§5:45.1 Reason for Stop
§5:45.2 Evergreen Wreath
§5:45.3 Traveling Alone
§5:45.4 Nervousness
§5:45.5 Searching Motor Home
§5:46 Sample Argument
C. ShotSpotter and Reasonable Suspicion
§5:47 Overview of Technology and Challenges to Reliability
§5:48 Challenges re: Reasonable Suspicion to Stop
§5:49 In Practice: Challenging ShotSpotter Stops
D. Mistake and Reasonable Suspicion
§5:50 Governing Principles
§5:51 Sample Fact Scenario
§5:52 Sample Cross-Examination
§5:53 Sample Argument
[§§5:54-5:61 Reserved]
E. Proximity to Person Suspected of Committing a Crime
§5:62 Governing Principles
§5:63 Sample Fact Pattern
5-3 Probable Cause and Reasonable Suspicion: Arrests, Seizures, Stops and Frisks
§5:64 Sample Cross-Examination
§5:65 Sample Argument
F. Anonymous Informants
G. Litigating Probable Cause vs. Reasonable Suspicion
§5:66 Indicia of Arrest
§5:67 Case Examples: Finding No Probable Cause to Arrest
§5:68 Sample Case Scenario
§5:69 Sample Cross-Examination
§5:70 Sample Argument
[§§5:71-5:74 Reserved]
H. Litigating Reasonable Suspicion after Utah v. Strieff
§5:75 The Strieff Decision
§5:76 Litigation Strategy Post-Strieff
§5:77 Cases to Cite in Challenging Strieff Searches
§5:78 Scenarios in which Defendant Might Prevail, Notwithstanding Strieff
§5:79 Sample Case Scenario
§5:80 Sample Cross-Examination
§5:81 Sample Argument
[§§5:82-5:84 Reserved]
I. Race and Reasonable Suspicion
1. The Impact of Race in the Criminal Justice System
§5:85 The Statistics
§5:86 Historical Use of the Law as an Instrument Against African-Americans
§5:87 Racism, Implicit Bias and Police Perception of African-Americans
§5:88 One Black Man’s Perspective
2. Evidence of Racism and Legal Arguments in Support of Suppression
§5:89 Racial Prof‌iling
§5:89.1 Constitutional Arguments (Fourteenth Amendment) for Suppression
§5:89.2 Statutory Arguments for Suppression
§5:90 Code Words for Racially-Based Police Actions
§5:91 Civil Rights Cases
§5:92 Accepted Fourth Amendment Jurisprudence
§5:92.1 Race and Seizures
§5:92.2 Example: Flight, Reasonable Suspicion and Race
§5:92.3 Facts to Elicit in Client Interview
§5:93 Bright Spots in the Case Law
§5:94 Expert Witnesses and Learned Treatises
§5:95 The Government’s Pleadings
3. Litigating Lack of Reasonable Suspicion
§5:96 Pretextual Stop: “High Crime” Area
§5:97 When Police Are Seeking a Suspect for a Particular Crime
§5:98 When Police Are Not Seeking a Specif‌ic Suspect
§5:99 Common Scenario: Stop Based on Race
§5:99.1 Sample Fact Pattern
§5:99.2 Cross-Examination Issues and Strategy
§5:99.3 Sample Cross-Examination
Form 5-1 Motion to Suppress – No Probable Cause to Arrest
Form 5-2 Motion to Suppress – Unlawful Pat Down
Form 5-3 Motion to Suppress – No Reasonable Suspicion for Stop or Pat Down
Form 5-4 ACLU (New Jersey) Amicus Brief re: Reasonable Suspicion, Race, Implicit Bias
Form 5-5 ACLU (New Jersey) Amicus Brief re: Reasonable Suspicion, “High Crime” Area,
“Reasonable Person” Standard

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