This second edition of the Encyclopedia of the American Constitution represents the compilation of twenty years' work. It gathers together in one source all of the articles written for the original four-volume set published in 1986; articles in the supplementary volume published in 1992; and new articles on developments in the 1990s. Our initial intention was to publish a second supplementary volume, but as publication drew near it became clear that the combination of the original work with two supplements, each with articles of relevance to researchers and students of particular topics, would be unwieldy. For example, one looking for an overview of Freedom of Speech would have had to look up articles in three separate volumes to form a complete picture. With this second edition, all articles on a single topic are placed together and dated, for easy retrieval in one search.
This edition contains 361 new articles by 237 authors. Some of these authors contributed to the original Encyclopedia or Supplement I or both, but we have sought to expand the list to include a new generation of scholars. As before, most of the contributors are academic lawyers, yet some articles are written by judges, practicing lawyers, historians, or political scientists. Every article is signed by its author. We have continued to encourage writers to use the essay form, expressing their own views as they wish. We recruited authors with the purpose of presenting a wide range of views. For new articles on some controversial subjects we have sought to provide contrasting views under the same title (e.g., Same-Sex Marriage, I and II; Workplace Harassment and Freedom of Speech, I and II).
The substantial new material of this edition focuses mainly on the constitutional issues arising since the publication of Supplement I in 1992. During this time, two new Justices have joined the U.S. Supreme Court: Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg replaced Justice Byron R. White, and Justice Stephen G. Breyer replaced Justice Harry A. Blackmun. We have been saddened during these years by the deaths of Chief Justice Warren E. Burger, and Justices
William J. Brennan, Jr., Thurgood Marshall, Lewis F. Powell, Jr., and Harry A. Blackmun.
We have not only updated topics covered in earlier volumes, but also included a great many articles on topics not previously covered. Some of these articles represent relatively new subject matter (e.g., DNA testing and genetic privacy, the Internet and...