Practice and Research in Career Counseling and Development--2012.

Author:Bikos, Lynette H.
Position:Annual Review - Report - Abstract

This annual review oft he 2012 career development/vocational psychology literature includes 191 empirical (69%) and conceptual (31%) articles from career, counseling, development, and international journals. The review is divided into 4 major areas: professional issues, work and well-being, life-span perspectives, and professional issues, work and well-being, life-span perspectives, and career theory and concepts. Subsumed within these dusters are fbd on the status of career/vocational guidance around the globe, the career development experiences of immigrants, and the effiers of economic stress. The authors offer three summarizing impressions. First, the 2012 collection is definitively global; this is a credit to the individual and institutional dimensions of the counseling profession. Second, the research articles represent a ide array of methodological approaches, and researchers have made wise research design choices for their areas of inquiry. Third, there is a true professional responsiveness to the needs of the world. It is suggested that the 2012 literature reflects Parsons's early vision of social justice and multiculwralism. We open the 2012 annual review by expressing our gratitude for being invited to complete this task for The Career Development Quarterly (CDQ). Although we were still swimming in the information collected at the time of this writing, we recognize the honor of the task, and we hope that our product will be helpful to those who use it. We are also grateful for the scholars who preceded us in this endeavor. Their reviews (e.g., Erford & Crockett, 2012; Hartung, 2010) were most helpful to us in charting a course through the published works. Consequently, with few departures, our process and structure mirror our predecessors in this genre.

We began the review by accessing and reviewing the full text versions of six career development journals: CDQ, Journal of Vocational Behavior.; Journal of Career Assessment (JCA), Journal of Career Development (JOCD), Journal of Employment Counseling (JEC), and the International Journal for Educational & Vocational Guidance (IJEVG). We also searched for topically relevant published articles from the following counseling and psychology journals: Adultspan, American Psychologist, Counseling Psychologist, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of College Counseling, Journal of Counseling & Development. (JCD), Journal of Counseling Psychology, Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, Journal of Organizational Behavior (JOB), Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, Professional School Counseling Journal, and Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin. Finally, we searched the PsycINFO database for articles we might have missed. Our review resulted in 191 published articles: 53% were quantitative, 10% qualitative, 4% mixed methods, 2% meta-analyses, and 31% were conceptual.

In a manner consistent with our predecessors, we attempted to write the review in a manner that will be useful to practitioners; we followed the space-efficient formatting tradition of dropping the year of publication (2012); and, although most articles could have been reviewed in more than one section, we reviewed each article in only one category. Our review is divided into the following four topical clusters: (a) professional issues, (b) work and well-being, (c) life-span perspectives, and (d) career theory and concepts. We depart from our predecessors in two notable ways. First, because the development of a scale/measure often informs a theory or practice, we do not have a special section devoted to career assessment/testing. Rather, we incorporate that information where it is topically relevant. For example, Dik, Eldridge, Steger, and Duffy's new measures on calling and vocation are described in the section on career constructs (i.e., calling). Second, we perceived that international scholarship is finally well represented across the scope of our coverage. Including international contributions (e.g., understanding the career transitions for individuals in post-Socialist Macedonia) with the rest of die domestic and international literature on career transitions (in the life-span category) served to highlight where research findings do and do not generalize across cultural boundaries. Therefore, we did not separate international scholarship into its own section.

Professional Issues

Our coverage of professional issues begins with the counseling relationship, focusing on articles that address the career counseling process and outcome. We then turn our focus outward and cluster articles in topics related to (a) the profession's responsiveness to societal change, (b) the status of career guidance in school counseling, and (c) the status of career/vocational guidance in international contexts.

Career Counseling Process and Outcome

Conceptual and research articles updated the discussion on issues related to the counseling process and outcome. Olry-Louis, Bremond, and Pouliot reported the results of a microdiscursive analysis of 64 career counseling transcripts with student counselors and clients. The focus was on confidence sharing (i.e., the asymmetrical disclosure of private information). The authors describe the myriad of ways confidences are revealed, the responses of the counselor, and the effects on the counseling relationship. Strenger and Littman-Ovadia conducted a longitudinal evaluation (three career counseling sessions) with 94 Israeli client-counselor dyads. Results suggested that both clients' and counselors' ratings of working alliance increased over time and that clients' ratings were consistently higher than were the counselors1 ratings. Results also suggested that clients' ratings of working alliance were a strong predictor of career exploration.

In the United Arab Emirates, Al-Darmaki examined relations between attitudes toward career counseling, self-esteem, and self-efficacy. A structural analysis of the Attitudes Toward Career Counseling Scale (Rochlen, Mohr, & Hargrove, 1999), which was a part of the evaluation, suggested a two-factor structure (values, stigma). Results suggested that men had higher levels of stigma and lower values for career counseling than did women. Women majoring in the humanities and social sciences had higher levels of stigma than did women who majored in hard sciences. The values dimension was positively related and the stigma dimension was negatively related to self-esteem and self-efficacy for both sexes.

Responding to Societal Change

Scholars and practitioners noted changes on a variety of fronts (technological, economic, global). On the technology front, Osborn and LoFrisco proposed die use of social networking sites (SNSs) for university career centers to provide career information to students. Results from a survey of 78 university career centers showed that the most commonly used SNSs were Facebook, Linked In, and Twitter. Using SNSs allowed personnel at university career centers to provide students with career-related information, connect with students, and promote career center services. Thus, survey respondents believed that posting to SNSs led to increased student responsiveness; event attendance; visibility of die career center; and connections with alumni, students, and professionals. Participants also highlighted the cost effectiveness and ease of use of the sites. The principal drawback was the amount of time required to maintain the sites.

Stead et al. reported the results of a content analysis of 11 journals (more than 3,000 research articles from 1990 to 2009) that publish career, vocational, and work-related articles. Approximately 55% of the articles used quantitative methods, 35% were theoretical/conceptual, and 6% used qualitative research methods. The authors, who focused on the quantity and quality of the qualitative research approaches, speculated that one of the reasons for the low proportion of qualitative work was that the standards of trustworthiness (methodological rigor) associated with published articles were unlikely to be reported and/or followed.

Counseling professionals continue to participate in the internationalization of the field. This was evidenced in the newly instituted annual tradition of CDQand IJEVGsharing the role in publishing symposium proceedings from the Third International Symposium. This symposium is organized conjointly by the International Association of Educational and Vocational Guidance, the Society of Vocational Psychology, and the National Career Development Association (Rossier; Rossier, Trusty, Schultheiss, Van Esbroeck, & Niles). Relatedly, readers will notice the growing proportion of international scholarship in this annual review. With regard to the internationalization of career practices, Osborn noted die high regard for career assessments. He cautioned practitioners and researchers to transport assessments in a culturally competent manner, keeping their cultural limitations in mind.

Status of Career Guidance in School Counseling

Anctil, Smith, Schenck, and Dahir reported results of a survey of U.S. school counselors who were members of the American School Counselor Association and/or their state school counselor association. The majority (85.2%) of die participants were female. Among the reported findings were the following: School counselors who reported that they adhered to a state school counseling model placed higher priority on career development than did those who subscribed to other counseling models; there was a positive relation between prioritization and provision of career development activities; career development activities received lower prioritization and provision than did academic development and personal-social development; and school counselors desired more continuing education, particularly training that addressed how to help students develop career goals and skills. Furthermore, school counselors with experience...

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