PERSONAL VALUE VERSUS CULTURAL COMPETENCY TOWARDS SELF-CONFIDENCE THROUGH PERSONAL BRANDING OF EMPLOYEES BETWEEN EXPATRIATES AND LOCAL EMPLOYEES.

Author:Frendika, Rusman
Position::Report
 
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INTRODUCTION

Along with the opening of the gate of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC), it is now possible for expatriates to work in Indonesia, so in Banten province. Potential conflict of values and culture are found everywhere, while cultural competency and self-confidence become common problems among expatriates and local employees. Referring to some research, low self-esteem due to negative thoughts or limited self-image, creating a new image of positive self-image through visualization can lead to increased confidence. Intensify multicultural conflicts in knowledge and management (Hofstede & Bond, 1988). According to Bhaskar, Shrinivas, Harrison & Luk (2005) expatriates should have cultural competency, otherwise conflict of cultural could arise, which relates to their personal branding. Researcher has suggested that basically self-confidence is one of the personality traits not the innate or genetic trait and influenced by personal values and cultural competence in a cross-cultural way through a personal branding. So, this research will compare cultural competency, self-confidence and those related variable across different cultural group of Korean, Chinese, Japanese and local employees.

PERSONAL BRANDING, PERSONAL VALUE, CULTURAL COMPETENCE, SELF CONFIDENCE

Some opinions about personal branding such as stated by Peters (1997) that no age, no position, no matter what business we are in, we must all understand the importance of branding. Montoya (2003) said person's unique skills, Mobray (2009) states an art in shaping public perception actively. In contrast to Arruda (2007) stated extract, express, exude. McNally & Speak (2002) said competencies, standards and styles and Aaker (1999) said sincerity, excitement, sophistication, ruggedness outdoorsy. And I argue that personal branding is an effort to build a self-image based on competencies (creative, innovative), standard (workload, ethics), style (visionary, cooperative), visibilities (optimism, job target), relevant (mastery of technology, understood an environment), distinctive (skillful, sensitivity).

Value refers to Hofstede (1988) is beliefs and attitudes which presented the philosophical basis for the association of fundamental values. These values vary among different group of people in different cultures. Kamakura Dan Mazzon has adopted value structure of Schwartz by grouping into three parts; Achievement, Empaty and Hedonism.

Definition of cultural competence according to some researcher such as Rowley (2010) is integration and transformation of knowledge about individuals and groups of people to standard specifications classified into three types are; cultural awareness, cultural sensitivity and cultural adroitness. Gudykunsts (1992) said intellectual culture has a direct effect on communication, personality orientation, self-construal and individual values also mediate the influence of cultural communication. And Bennett (1993) explains that an ethnocentric view through a powerful acknowledgment and acceptance of difference.

And according to Waterman (1980), self-confidence defined as characteristics of people who are confident), working effectively, responsible, planned in doing tasks and future goals. Glimer (1978) stated selflessness, tolerance, no need of others' confession, optimism and no hesitation in making decisions; dare to face every challenge and be open to new experiences. Self-confidence is defined as the positive attitude of an individual that enables him to develop a positive assessment of himself and the environment and circumstances he faces.

The objectives of the study are thus, (1) to assess employee perceptions of personal branding between local and foreign employee, (2) to assess employee perceptions of self-confidence between local and foreign employee.

METHODS

The essence of cross-cultural study is a comparative study aimed at comparing certain cultural variables and the consequences or effects of cultural influences, from two cultural contexts or...

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