Globalization and the evolution of the internet have facilitated the growth of e-commerce leading to the emergence and growth of on-line retail stores globally (Ramayah & Ignatius, 2005). The rapid rate of internet penetration espically through mobile devices have accelerated the usage of B2C e-commerce globally. Studies in e-commerce and on-line retailing have identified various characteristics and features of the Internet that positively affects consumer in the online shopping environment such as widespread availability of information, interactive experience, convenience, time saving, variety, cost savings and price comparison (Kim & Stoel, 2004; Khatibi et al., 2006; Ham et al., 2006; Shergill & Chen, 2005).
Despite this, many internet users avoid purchasing online due to privacy and security concerns informed by sending of personal information through the internet (Lian & Lin, 2008; Roca et al., 2009). This has made it very important in establishing trust in online shopping for the success and continuous growth of online retailing. Studies in the literature (Yoon, 2002; Tan & Guo, 2005; Cyr, 2008; Ganguly et al., 2010; Mosunmola et al., 2018) have empirically shown that features and design of online shopping sites can be used to enhance trust on the platform of business to consumers e-commerce. But consumers' need to view the online shopping sites features as it relates to their perceived value of functional, utilitarian and hedonic benefits.
With online retailing, organisations are operating in numerous countries and dealing with customers from different cultural background. Customers in different culture may have different levels of personal cultural values because culture differ in pattern of behaviour and attitude (Yoo & Donthou, 2001). Studies in the past such as that of Shaw-Ching et al. (2000), Singh et al. (2004), and Ganguly et al. (2010) have found that customers expectation for service quality and information search differs across cultural values. Currently, researchers studying consumer online behaviour are beginning to access the importance of national culture in influencing shoppers behaviour across countries as the influence of culture on individual online shopping intention is yet to be fully explored. This study fills this gap by assessing the role of three dimensions of the individual cultural values on online shoppers from a non-werstern context as against the five dimensions assessed in western culture.
Investigation into the literature further showed that limited scholarly work focued on the influence of consumers perceived value of online shopping features, attitude, trust, and perceived risk to intention to purchase online products as it relates to individual cultural values of online shoppers. This study is unique by examining the moderating effects of cultural values on key relationships (Perceived value-trust: attitude and trust-perceived risk) and contributing to current research on online shopping using the three dimensions of national culture (individualism/collectivism, uncertainity aviodance, and masculinity/feminity) as developed by Hofstede (2001).
The objectives of this study include: to identify factors that constitute consumers perceived value of online shopping features that affect trust and attitude, to test the role of cultural value dimensions in the relationship between perceived value of online shopping features, attitude and trust and to evaluate the role of trust and online perceived risk as it affects online purchase intention.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND HYPOTHESIS DEVELOPMENT
The theoretical framework for this study was adapted from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by Davis et al. (1989) has been used in most research studies relating to information systems adoption. Although this model was developed to explain and predict computer-usage behaviour in the work place, it has been empirically validated in determining ecommerce adoption and as a theoretical foundation in explaining on-line consumer behavour (Klopping & Mckinney, 2004; Lee et al., 2001). This study adopts TAM construct in the development of the study research framework.
In TAM, behavioral intention to adopt and use a new web technology is determined by the consumers' attitude toward using such technology (Pavlou, 2003). Studies from the literature (Lim & Ting, 2012; Chang & Wang, 2011) have shown that persons confronted with any form of new technology or System will likely evaluate the perceived usefulness in relation to the outcome of the experience and also perceive ease of use in terms of the procedures of accomplishing the intended outcome before deciding whether or not to adopt the technology.
Recent studies (Wolfinbarger & Gilly, 2001; Childers et al., 2001; Menon & Kahn, 2002) in online shopping context have introduced the construct "playfulness" that is, shopping for fun (enjoyment) into their theoretical framework using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Theory of Reasoned Action model (TRA). Therefore, within the framework of TAM, both utilitarian dimension that is, perceptions of functional benefits ("ease of use "usefulness") and hedonic dimension that is perceptions of emotional benefits ("playfulness"; "fun") are basic antecedent of consumers' attitude and intention to use new technology which can be applied in online shopping context.
E-commerce generally cuts across national boundaries and culture of the people and it has focused mainly on national level culture using Hofstede's (1984:1991) framework where nations are treated with the notion that they share an identical culture and that greater culture value differences exist amongst countries than within countries. Scholarly argument in the literature have revealed that technology acceptance in form of online shopping by end-users should be on an individual-level basis as peoples' cultural values are not necessarily shaped by national boundaries (Yoo & Donthou, 2002; Srite & Karahanna, 2006), but can be evaluated at the individual level of analysis with the use of personality test as identified by Tyler et al. (2000). It has also been augued that culture as a learned value varies across individuals, ethnic and religious groups and as such, it does not necessarily correspond to national boundaries (Yoo et al., 2001).
Studies in the literature have proven that Hofstede's (1984:1991) dimension of nation-level culture can be used in assessing individual cultural values as scholars in information system studies (Karahanna et al., 2005; Gallivan & Srite, 2005; McCoy et al., 2005) advocates for individual-level assessesment of cultural values. Also scholars in online consumer behaviour studies (Dash et al., 2009; Dash & Saji, 2006; Srite & Karahanna, 2006) have carried out an individual level analysis of cultural values as moderators on online shopping behaviour. This study adopts three dimensions (individualism/collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity/femininity) which are relevant to the purpose of this study out of the five dimensions (individualism/collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity/femininity and long-term orientation) of Hofstede's (1984:2001) national culture typology to evaluate individual level cultural values on online consumers purchase intention. The different interactions proposed is depicted in the conceptual model of the study as shown in Figure 1.
Perceived Value of Online Store on Trust and Attitude
Review of related literature (Menon & Kahn, 2002; Gefen et al., 2003; Kim et al., 2008; Chang & Wang 2011; Lim & Ting 2012; Akinbode et al., 2018) in online shopping indicates that features of online store features are viewed from two consumer perspectives namely utilitarian and hedonic dimensions. Utilitarian consumers are activity motivated and rational in thinking, with shopping motive being directed by information and navigation design of the online store features. Perceived hedonic value is associated with enjoyment/entertainment and consumers online shopping motive will be directed to the visual designs of the online store features (Overby & Lee, 2006).
Studies from the literature (Liang & Lai, 2000; Tih & Ennis, 2006; Cyr, 2008; Ayo et al., 2016) have shown that perceived utilitarian value in terms of online store information design, transaction and navigation design has an impact on shoppers' attitude and perceived trust. According to the study of Lin & Liu (2000), the quality of a website determines the attitude of online shoppers. Information on online store websites have the capacity to generates trust and loyalty if the online shopper can perceive such information as been accurate, clear, relevant and current (Mithas et al., 2006; Aladwani & Palvia, 2002). Corritore et al. (2003) further argued that relevant information on online store website increases shoppers' trustworthiness of the site.
Good navigation designs on online store increase the ease of browing through on the site for information relevant in making product decision by the shopper (Park & Kim, 2006). Cyr (2008), is of the opinion that online shoppers attitude towards online shopping may not be favourable if he/she encounters difficulty in accessing product and transactional information. Studies have shown that proper navigation saves shoppers time and reduce perceived risks thereby increasing the level of trust and generating a favourable attitude towards online shopping (Harridge, 2006; Yoon, 2002; Lim & Dubinsky, 2004). Thus, we propose the following:
H1a: Perceived utilitarian value of store features has a positive effect on trust in online shopping.
H1b: There is a positive effect of perceived utilitarian value of store features on attitude towards online shopping.
Perceived hedonic value of store features reflects the value of potential entertainment and enjoyment of playfulness derieved from the experience of online shopping. The visual...