Examining the effect of trust, procedural justice, perceived organizational support, commitment, and job satisfaction in Royal Thai police: the empirical investigation in social exchange perspective.

Author:Saekoo, Areerat

    The organizational behavior research has main objectives to understand the role of aptitude, perception, and behavior of individual, group, and organization (McShane and Glinow, 2005; Robbins, 2005). Moreover, supervisor and supervisee take an important role to cooperative work for organizational objective achievement (Yoon and Suh, 2003). So, trust is a key success relationships factors in workplace; trust in organization has received considerable attention from both academicians and practitioners. Following this further, the social exchange theory describes the critical role of trust in the relationships between manager and worker which exhibit the attitude and behavior to effort and loyalty to their organization. Therefore, social exchange theory has provided the ways with which to view the employment relationship (Chen, Aryee and Lee, 2005). In addition, this exchange relationship has been observed and found that it was characterized by economic and social elements (Aryee and Chen, 2004). The most popular study of Blau (1964) defines the economic exchange as contract of a specific time frame, and entails transactions whose value is independent exchange. Meanwhile, the social exchange is an informal and open-ended or long-term exchange of favors premised on a diffuse obligation to reciprocate (Aryee and Chen, 2004; Blau, 1964). Certainly, the study of trust in organization based on psychological contract in short-term with relationship employee can use in long-term relationship (Konovsky and Pugh, 1994). Several studies in organizational behavior filed with social exchange perspective have an attention in trust (Konovsky and Pugh, 1994), commitment and job satisfaction (Kim et al., 2008; Pillai, Schriesheim and Williams, 1999; Rodriguez, Perex and Guiterrez, 2008), perceived organizational support (Eisenberger, Fasolo and Davis- LaMastro, 1990; Rhoades and Eisenberger, 2002), and procedural justice (Amborse, Hess and Ganesan, 2007; Aryee and Chen, 2004; Aryee, Chen and Budhwar, 2004; Lambert, Hogan and Griffin, 2007). Most studies argue the restrictions of the social exchange context on the exchange norm, but they neglect the attitude effect of employees' trust in organization (Rempel, Holmes and Zanna, 1985). Therefore, this study focuses on association between trust and exchange, the effects of trust underpin social exchange perspective, and benefit of organization from these exchange which support firm effectiveness.

    In this study, trust, procedural justice, perceived organizational support, commitment, and job satisfaction are empirically examined. To clearly verify the aforementioned relationships, the Royal Thai Police is chosen as the sample in this study. The Royal Thai Police is the national police of Thailand which is appropriate to verify the social exchange conceptualization because police officers have strongly line command between supervisor and supervisee. Therefore, the employment relationship is very important in police organization.

    Accordingly, trust in organization has a significant role in this study leading to research question as follows: (1) how trust has an effect on commitment and job satisfaction, (2) how job satisfaction has an influence on commitment, and (3) how procedural justice and perceived organizational support have an impact on trust. Additionally, the important objectives in this study are as follows: (1) to test the relationship among trust, commitment, and job satisfaction, (2) to investigate the relationship between commitment and job satisfaction and (3) to examine the relationships among procedural justice, perceived organizational support, and trust.

    This study is outlined as follows. The first section reviews existing significant literature in the areas and streams of trust, procedural justice, perceived organizational support, commitment, and job satisfaction, links between the concepts of the aforementioned variables, and develops the key research hypotheses of those relationships. The second section explicitly describes the details of research methods, including data collection, measurements, and statistics. The third section gives the analysis results of the current study and corresponding discussion with some of the reasons and explanations. The final section summarizes the study findings and points both theoretical and managerial contributions, and presents suggestions for further research and the study limitations.


    The social exchange theory has described the exchange relationships between individual parties using psychological contact. Therefore, an attitude of this study is originating from cognitive behavior exchanges between employer and employee. Interestingly, this study aims at investigating the associations among trust, procedural justice, perceived organizational support, commitment, and job satisfaction in the Royal Thai Police. Thus, the conceptual, linkage, and research model presents the associations among trust, procedural justice, perceived organizational support, commitment, and job satisfaction, as shown in Figure 1.


    2.1 Trust in Organization

    Several researches defined trust as a "psychological contract comprising the intention to accept vulnerability based upon positive expectations of the intention or behavior of another" (Chen, Aryee and Lee, 2005).Yoon and Suh (2003) mention that trust is social exchange relationship which exhibits confidence and beliefs about their exchange partner. Likewise, social exchange in firms infers an informal contract between an employee and an organization. In this study, the employee's manager represents the organization to the employee (Konovsky and Pugh, 1994). In addition, the study of Cropanzano and Mitchell (2005) suggest that the excellent employment relationship is based upon trust in organization. Certainly, trust in organization increases job satisfaction in employee. Many studies suggest that the increasing of trust toward those superiors is associated with higher job...

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