Panini, His Work and Its Traditions, vol. 1:Background and Introduction. By GEORGE CARDONA. 2nd edition, revised and enlarged. Delhi: MOTILAL BANARSIDASS PUBLISHERS, 1997. Pp. lxiv + 763.
This volume, which has justly become popular and undergone a second edition, represents the introduction to a vast eight-volume project. Here Cardona provides access to Panini's Astadhyayi by explaining a large number of sutras distributed according to topic. As usual, his explanations, largely drawing upon the commentaries and accompanied by copious examples taken from different branches of Sanskrit literature, are lucid and profound. Some complexities are avoided at this stage; they are reserved for the future volumes.
The structure of the Astadhyayi--baffling to beginners and even to some distinguished linguists, but a "masterpiece of organization" for others--will be dealt with in the second volume; but already in this volume are useful indications. There are also valuable remarks on accentuation (pp. li ff.) and on such matters as "the status and purposes of grammar," "terms for the language described and for the grammar and its components" (Appendices I and II), as well as a critical edition of the Astadhyayisutrapatha (Appendix III). Helpful indices terminate the work.
Of all the works of the kind that have appeared in recent years, this strikes me as the best, and the completion of the project is impatiently awaited.
Differing from Cardona in matters concerning Panini appears to me extremely hazardous. Nonetheless, I venture to make some observations on a couple of points.
In connection with A 6.1.201 and 202 ([section]595), Cardona seems to derive ksaya 'dwelling' and jaya '(a horse or such) with which one gains victory' with the suffix ac (A 3.3.56). Accordingly, in connection with A 6.2.144 ([section]607), he writes praksayah 'outstanding dwelling'. Here he departs from the general trend among the Paniniyas (cf. Bhattoji Diksita, Praudhamanorama on Siddhantakaumudi 3933 [A 6.2.199]), in accordance with which ksaya and jaya should be derived with the suffix gha (and so, but for these sutras, would have the accent on the suffix: ksaya, jaya), and ksaya destroying' and jaya 'victory' with ac. Thus Kasika: ksaysabdo nivase bhidheye adyudatto bhavati ...pumsi samjnayam ghah prayena (A 3.9.118) iti ghapratyayantasya pratyayasvarah praptah (A 3.1.3) ... nivasa iti kim ksayo vartate dasyunam. er ac (A 3.3.56) ity ayam ajantah.
Now, in connection with A...