Author:Ajlouni, Wajdee Mohammadkair Ebrheem


Research has recognized that Organizational Justice (OJ) is a factor that drives employees to demonstrate their involvement tasks as transcend duties (Colquitt et al., 2001). An OJ confirmed that organizations can make their employees feel that they are treated fairly and equally, OJ is classified mainly into four types: distributive, procedural, interactive, and informational (McDowall & Fletcher, 2004). Moreover, previous studies have shown that perceptions of workplace as justice is relate to a positive view of the Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB).Therefore, the decline in perceptions of OCB can be attributed to a lack of awareness of justice in organization (Abili et al., 2009).

The OCB has been developed as an essential field of study because of the growing importance of independent and team-based work in place of firm, usual hierarchies (Campbell & Joy, 2016). Also, the OCB has persisted in empirical focus because the researchers appreciate its practical implications for organizational success (Podsakoff et al., 2000). However, Organ (1988) defined the OCB as "Individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization". In addition, OCB helps to enhance employees' performance besides organizational performance and success (Podsakoff et al., 2000).While, OCB was highly influenced by organizational performance and commitment, which in turn can enhance customer-equality of services and satisfaction, OCB can improve patient satisfaction service quality, but it does not significantly improve patient loyalty (Sutharjana et al., 2013). OCB has a great effect with organizational variables such as Job satisfaction, Job commitment and Turnover intentions which were held accountable for employees' (Huak & Pivi, 2015). Finally, OCB has positive influence on overall performance in the workplace (Tanaka, 2013).

At university non-academic staff constitutes a significant number of the whole staff population and their contributions during academic support and facilitator role certainly has an impact on overall performance of the university. Since a number of non-academic staff members are huge their behavior can be probable to have a high level of impact of resultant OCB (Kandeepan, 2016). The OCB is taken into consideration from the point of non-academic staff members at universities. Demographic aspects of university non-academic staff and their relationship and differences with OCB level are researched and analyzed in this study. The reality of literatures and researchers in Jordan haven't focused on the OJ and OCB at governmental universities, many of the Arab studies have demonstrated the presence of several concentrated on the other sectors such as schools and companies. For these reasons, this study was focusing on the government universities in the northern part of Jordan and aims to clarify the levels of OJ and OCB at government universities through non-academic employee's perceptions and wanted to assess the relationships between these variables.


The Importance of Organizational Justice

The OJ has significant effects on the organization, employee and customer, OJ is one of the organizational principles that are applied to improve organizational professional performances (Marquis & Huston, 2009). This is congruent with Moazzezi et al. (2014) correlational study that examined the effect of OJ on Payamenoor University employees' job performance in Ardabil province in Iran. The results showed that OJ positively affected employees' job performance. The employee's perceptions in educational institutes about procedural and interactional justice have a great effect on their job satisfaction in Pakistani context, while distributive justice did not have a significant impact on job satisfaction (Iqbal, 2013). Also, OJ was acceptable and positively improved their performance in Payamenoor university of Ardabil in Iran (Moazzezi et al., 2014) additionally; interactional justice increased the feeling of treating with respect that makes employee more innovative in Jordanian companies (Almansour & Minai, 2012). Haar & Spell (2009) proved that employees were satisfied due to being more autonomous as a result of high distributive justice, and so turnover intentions were low. As well as, procedural justice dimension was found to be stronger predictor of turnover behavior among nurses of Midwestern state (Posthuma et al., 2007).

In a more descriptive study for Gim & Desa (2014), reported that effective employee commitment was significantly and positively related to distributive and procedural justice; employee perceived that they were dialed fairly and compensations were fair too, they could be more committed to their organization so that they could not leave the organization. Additionally, this study showed that, it is important for both public and private organizations to deal with its employees fairly to make them more committed, and so far they could be more likely intent to stay on the organizations. While, OCB was slightly more prevalent among managers working in general hospitals than those working in single-specialty hospitals in Iran (Farzianpour et al., 2011).Yet, nurses had a high perception of OJ in specialty hospitals that significantly differ regarding to their demographic not regarding to type of hospital; nurses with diploma degree had a higher perception of organizational justice than nurses with Bachelors (Hatam et al., 2013).

The perceptions of unfairness led to negative reaction in the organization while managers dealing fairly and consistent rewards based on employees' performance and competencies, without personal bias can create a positive perception of distributive and procedural justice among employee (Heidari & Saeedi, 2012). Finally, Holtz (2013) provided that new model of reciprocal relationships between trust and OJ. This model showed that trust is antecedent for OJ, which is controversial among the majority of previous literature in which trust was a consequence of OJ.

The Importance of Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Previous studies clarified many antecedents for enhancing OCB among employees at organization. A comprehensive review of literature provided evidence that employees' characteristics, job attitudes, task characteristics, and leader behaviors were the strongest antecedents of OCB, where as helping behavior was identified as an important form of OCB (Podsakoff et al., 2000). More specifically, employees' demographics still under argument in the literature; Mahnaz et al. (2014) studied the effects of employees' demographics on OCB. Their study showed that OCB can be affected by demographic characteristics with the exception of ethnicity. Congruent with Farzianpour et al. (2011) found that OCB affected by sex of managers, education level, and the fields of their study. Later on, Altuntas & Baykal (2014) proved that employees' age, work position, and institutional experience, in addition to professional characteristics were significantly affected OCB. While, Uzonwanne (2014) studying OCB among oil workers in Nigeria found that gender, educational level, and marital status had not any effect in OCB. That supported by El-Badawy et al. (2017) who provided evidence that there was no significant association between...

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