The increasing globalization combined with a rapidly changing business environment have led to the growth of a technological and cultural revolution characterized by a wide, quick growth and spread of companies, which led to increased challenges and responsibilities for companies. The probability of success for companies that focus on the environment and what is happening around is high. Accordingly, they are able to avoid barriers and challenges .Due to the supply chain focus which is caring for customers and responding to them, as well as taking into consideration the company's capabilities and knowledge of the external environment it requires a high degree of efficiency. It can be defined as a complex network of procedures (raw materials, production, distribution, recycling) resulting in the delivery of the product to the end-customer) (Sarkis et al., 2011). GSC is focusing on the same tasks and processes experienced by the traditional SC with large emphasis on environmental concerns by reducing the pollution ratio of the production (Hervani et al., 2005). Furthermore, building strong collaboration with GSC members such as suppliers, distributers, customers, community and government have become a critical factor for implementing and maintaining the green management strategy and it is considering as critical factor for keeping competitive advantage. Nevertheless, there are a several external and internal organizational factors influencing the implementation of GSC in all industry generally and in the food sector in particular. Therefore, this study will explore the external and internal organizational factors that might affect the implementation of this process in the Jordanian food industry.
Companies today are seeking to gain and maintain competitive position and to achieve their goals efficiently and effectively. The companies, as part of society, are responsible for applying the regulations and laws, especially laws relating to environmental protection and conservation. In addition, many people have become concerned within the environment .They have contributed to the increased sense of responsibility for companies to preserve the environment by acting to reduce the proportion of pollution caused by manufacturing and transportation and waste by taking advantage of recycling. The goal of GSC is to apply all possible tools to minimize the percentage of all pollution types, and to use all resources efficiently and effectively and benefit from recycling operations. Food companies in Jordan are considered one of the developed industries, which are characterized by significant production activity. Since they are one of the most consumed products, they produce a lot of waste and pollution. However, there are many organizational factors affecting the implementation of GSC in the Jordanian food sector including internal and external factors. Investigation of these factors is still poor and the gap in the available studies is still huge especially within the context of developed countries. Accordingly, the current study attempts to explore this issue in a systematic research as a replacement of the fragmented efforts that are made.
Supply Chain Management (SCM)
SCM can defined as a network or system of units directly interested in the production of goods and services, assembled, and converted from suppliers to customers according to their demands (Leukel & Kirn, 2008). On the other hand, (Hugos, 2011) defined SC as the coordination of production, inventory, location, and transportation between the participants in the SC to achieve better efficiency of products. The essence of the supply chain is to minimize the costs of processes such as procurement of resources, manufacturing, transportation, and recycling cost while satisfying customers (Boubekri, 2001). People who care about environmental issues often wonder about the negative effects of the factories and the transport of goods and waste. Because of that, companies and governments around the world are wondering about what they can apply to address this problem. This raised the issue that is known as the GSC.
Green Supply Chain (GSC)
GSC management as a term consists of three main parts: the first is management, which is the main activities of the organization: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling, the second part is the chain means interdependence between the main parts, the third part is the processing includes processing materials, products, services. The green refers to the environmentally friendly processing activities, which is a sequence of processing, storage and distribution operations (Chien & Shih, 2007; Malviya & Kant, 2015). As global environment issues have become more notice about the consumers, companies and governments have also taken notice as a result of increased production and consumption levels (Green et al., 2002; Azzone & Manzini, 1994; Plambeck, 2007; Roberts, 2009). As Result of these concerns, GSC was established (Srivastava, 2007).
Green et al. (1998) defined GS as a method in which the perspective of the environment is foremost in SC manufacturing management. While Srivastava (2007) and Zhu & Sarkis (2004) on the same definition, Interest in...