Newspaper is a periodical publication containing news, research findings, other important information and advertisement; most newspapers focus on political developments, economy, business and finance, education, development, environment, art, culture, sports, entertainment, health and medicine, science and technology etc (Dutt, Garg & Bhatta, 2013). Newspaper have being playing a vital role in the communication process of scientific research findings and publications in the world. Scientists across the world access to news sources or mass media like everyone else, which suggests that the scientific impact of a research will be boosted by coverage in newspapers and other media etc., Fanelli (2013). Newspapers are a primary source of communication for general public on issues related to any new developments. Many scientific research activities and findings on various disciplines are published daily in the newspapers across the globe. It helps subject field or discipline to reach out to its readers in very short span of time.
Newspaper industries encountered with disruptive internet technologies in the 1090's; and the first web-based newspaper was launched in 1994 called the "Electronic Signpost" in April 1994 (Gunter, 2003). In May 1995 Quill reported that more than one hundred Newspaper publishing housed had gone online with their web-edition (Cochran, 1995). The launch of web-edition broke the geographical boundaries of Newspaper reach; as internet penetration started to move in north direction across the globe.
Dailies are broadly classified in two categories; General Newspaper and Financial Newspaper. General Newspaper caters the need of all type of user, while Financial daily covers exclusive economic and financial subjects. One of the leading financial daily is "The Financial Times" it is an English-language international daily newspaper started in 1888 in United Kingdom by Pearson PLC, London. It emphasis mainly on business and economic news. The Financial Times has an average daily circulation of 391,657 in 2010 (Financial Times, 2017).
Few prominent studies in past had identified the citation pattern in various disciplines and to identify the sources which attract more citation. Journals are highly cited and it is one of the most important sources in scholarly publications followed by thesis and dissertation (Madkey & Rajyalakshmi, 1994); (Chikate & Patil, 2008); (Keat & Kaur, 2008); (Vimala & Dominic, 2012); (Kagra & Sharma, 2014). Source specific study by Singh & Bebi (2013); Gupta & Khare (2013); Ezema & Asogwa (2014) Singh & Bebi (2014) highlighted the importance of books as citation sources by researchers.
Online newspaper have evolved over the period of time, researcher have studied on variety of features like, content, inter-activeness, revenue etc., (Kamere & Bressers, 1998); Dibean & Garrions, 2001); (Li, 2002). Newspaper as source was studied by Ravikumar & Agrahari (2015) and found that, newspaper is highly cited in scholarly publications. Old and most circulated newspaper is more cited than the new newspapers. They also found that, there is no correlation between rank of newspaper circulation and the rank of citation count.
Earlier studies had been carried out to find out the use of different forms of document; as a source of citations. From the literature it was found that financial newspaper specific studies have not been carried out till now. As these tabloids caters the information need to select audience. Thus, this study tries to bridge the gap using citation analysis to identify the role of Financial Times newspaper in scholarly publications and flow of information from dailies to serials.
The objectives of the study are:
i. To examine the citation pattern of financial time newspaper during 2001-2010
ii. To find out types of documents citing financial times newspaper
iii. To study the citation pattern of financial time newspaper in different journals
i. Is there any relationship between Citation and Circulation of Financial Times?
ii. Does internet penetration contribute to Citation of Newspaper?
Sources of data
There are many bibliographic databases covering different disciplines. Web of Science and Scopus are such two popular databases. Many authors have carried out citation studies using Web of Science and Scopus database. Erfanmanesh, Didegah & Omidvar (2010); Mishra, Panda & Goswami (2010); Upadhye, Kademani, Mohan & Bhanumurthy (2012); Thapar & Sengar (2013); Baskaran (2014); Sagar, Kademani & Bhanumurthy (2014); Ravikumar and Agrahari, (2015) carried citation studies to find out the citation patterns, documents, countries, authors and subjects using Web of Science database. Similarly, Sagar, Kademani, Garg & Kumar (2010); Gupta, Bala & Kshitig (2012); Gupta, Kumbar & Gupta (2013) too carried out citation studies to find out the citation patterns, documents, countries, authors and subjects using Scopus database.
Haddow & Genoni (2010) in their studies mentioned that, Web of Science and Scopus it is difficult to separate in terms of preferred source. It appears from the previous research that neither source is best for all citation needs and that their usefulness is dependent upon subject areas and the age of publications. Thus, for the present study Web of Science was chosen for downloading citation data for "Financial Times" newspaper. Country wise internet penetration data was downloaded from Global Internet Map ("Global Internet Maps", 2017).
The study used Web of Science database to extract relevant data on Financial Times newspaper citation during 2001-2010. The relevant data was downloaded during January, 2016, from Web of Science core collection. The search string "Cited Reference Search" "Cited work" and the keywords "Financial Times" OR "The Financial Times" were used to download the relevant data for the study. During downloading relevant data, the citations of only six years including the year of newspaper article publication in financial time was considered (i.e. citation from 2001-2006 was considered to find out the citations of financial times newspaper article of 2001). Haddow & Genoni, (2010) too have adopted citation gap of six years in their citation study on Australian social science journals. This method was carried out keeping in mind to give equal time period for citing a newspaper article in scholarly publications and to avoid bias in data collection since the data is considered only up to 31st December, 2015. During the study period there were 3016 records indexed in Web of Science up to 31st December, 2015. Out of 3016 records, only 2713 records having a total of 2117 citations were found with complete information. In the present study analysis is carried out for 2713 records having 2117 citations. The downloaded data was transferred into excel sheet and fitted into the SPSS software for the analysis and interpretation of the result.
In this study, the method adopted by Ravikumar and Agrahari (2015) for deriving the citing countries and subjects was used. Thus, only the first author's affiliated institution was considered to derive the citing countries of Financial Times newspaper. Further only the first subject indexed in Web of Science is also considered to derive the different subjects citing financial times newspaper during the study period.
Data analysis and interpretation
Citation of Financial Times newspaper in scholarly publications was examined to find out its importance as a citation source by researchers. The data analysis is carried out for 2713 records having 2117 citations in different scholarly publications of financial times during 2001- 2010, indexed in Web of Science upto 31st December, 2015. However, these numbers of citations may change as the coverage of publications in the Web of Science is regularly updated.
Citation Pattern of financial times
Scanning the financial times newspaper articles and the citations during ten years i.e. during 20012010 period shows that there is gradual increase in citing financial times in scholarly publications except in the year 2003 with 41 (1.94%) citations. The highest citation of financial times was 761 (35.95%) during the year 2010, and the lowest was 23 (1.09%) citations in the year 2001, in different scholarly publications. The no. of articles indexed year-wise and the no. of scholarly publications citing financial times newspaper is shown in Table-1.
Distribution of different documents types citing financial times
From the present study it is observed that, financial times is highly cited in journals research articles 1858 (87.77%) followed by review articles 114 (5.38%), editorial materials 69 (3.26%), Proceedings 45 (2.13%), book review 16 (0.76%), book chapter 8 (0.38), letter 5 (0.24%), Film review 1(0.05%) and Biographical-Items 1 (0.05%). The distribution of different types of documents citing financial times newspaper during 2001-2010 is shown above in table-2. Financial times newspaper is most frequently cited in journal research articles during the study period.
Scholarly publications citing financial times
The study found that altogether there are 911 scholarly publications citing financial times during 2001-2010. Table-3, displays the top 10 ranked journals citing financial times newspaper. There are 12 journals within the top 10 journals citing financial times, contributing 12.33 % citations during the period. The citing journals are shown in appendix-I (a).
Among the top 10 journals, Financial times newspaper was cited highly in Journal of Business Ethics (Netherlands) having 38 (1.79%) citations, followed by Review of International Political Economy (UK) having 36 (1.70%) citations, International Affairs (UK) having 24 (1.13%), New Political Economy (UK) having 23 (1.09), Third World Quarterly (UK) having 21 (0.99%) citations. Financial times newspaper is cited more in journals from United...