Hofstede defined Power Distance to be, 'the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organisations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally' (geert-hofstede.com). Hofstede showed differently across cultures on power distance index on his https://www.geert-hofstede.com. Table 1 shows part of it. The majority of Western countries, except France (score 68) United States, United Kingdom, Germany and Netherlands have a low power distance index. Meanwhile, the majority of Asian countries, such as Japan, China, South Korea, India and Turkey have a high power distance index. Likewise, ASEAN countries, such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines and Thailand have a high power distance.
The previous studies showed that the power distance has moderating effects on job satisfaction in management. Hauff & Richter (2015) investigated the moderating effect of power distance on the relationship between job characteristics and job satisfaction. Fock et al. (2013) investigated the moderating effect of power distance on the relationship between leadership empowerment and job satisfaction. Furthermore, Rafiei & Pourreza (2013) investigated the moderating effect of power distance on the relationship between employee participation and job satisfaction. Moreover, this paper provided a conceptual framework to be investigated in future research.
Job Characteristics and Job Satisfaction
Locke (1969); Hartline & Ferrell (1996) defines job satisfaction as, 'the pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job as achieving or facilitating the achievement of one's job values.' Hauff & Richter (2015) stated that the relation of job characteristics with status and power are perceived to be different among different cultures and moreover, that job characteristics include: income, advancement, job security, interesting job, independent work, qualification possibilities, opportunities for skills use, low workload, good relationships with management, good relationships with colleagues, opportunities to help others, usefulness to society and work-family compatibility.
Hauff & Richter (2015) stated that various situational job characteristics can influence job satisfaction. According to Stone et al. (2009); Amundsen & Martinsen (2015), the motivation to get autonomous work from subordinates can also influence personal satisfaction. According to Luthans (1994); Cerit (2009), the attitude of an individual on the job and job conditions can also impact on job satisfaction. Likewise, according to Cetinkanat (2000); Cerit (2009), a personal evaluation of job conditions (the job itself, attitude of the administrator) or the results of the job (wage, job security) can impact on job satisfaction. Furthermore, according to Davis (1981); Cerit (2009), unity between features of the job and the desires of those performing the job impact on job satisfaction. Thomas et al. (2004) found the effect of job characteristics on job satisfaction. Hauff & Richter (2015) found the relationship between situational job characteristics and job satisfaction that was moderated by power distance. It means that high and low power distance can weaken or strengthen the effect of job characteristics on job satisfaction.
Hauff & Richter (2015) also found a positive relationship between advancement opportunities and job satisfaction to be stronger in high power distance cultures. Hauff & Richter (2015) said that inequalities between social status, prestige and wealth were often large in high power distance cultures. Therefore, individuals should be highly motivated to get a better position within organisations or society. Hauff & Richter (2015) also found a positive relationship between income and job satisfaction to be stronger in cultures high in power distance. Wide salary ranges between the top and bottom of an organisation is no problem in high power distance culture (Hofstede et al., 2010). Therefore, the relationship between income and job satisfaction is moderated by high power distance (Hauff & Richter, 2015). However, in their research, Hauff & Richter (2015) did not find a moderation effect of power distance on the relationship between good relationships with management and job satisfaction, as well as a moderation effect of power distance on the relationship between good relationships between colleagues and job satisfaction. Therefore, the results on power distance's impact as well as its moderating role are strongly dependent on the cultural concepts utilised (Hauff & Richter, 2015). In low power distance cultures, subordinates expect superiors to consult them and give opportunities to express their point of view on the job or employee (Lam et al., 2002). However, a good relationship with managers, in high power distance cultures is less important for achieving high job satisfaction (Eisenberger, 2002) and employees depend more on their supervisors' direction (Bochner, 1994). Therefore, there will be a relationship between good relationships with management and job satisfaction, which was moderated by power distance (Hauff & Richter, 2015).
[H.sub.1]: The positive relationship between job characteristics and job satisfaction is stronger in high power distance cultures.
Leadership Empowerment and Job Satisfaction
According to Fock et al. (2013), there were three types of empowerment, i.e. discretion empowerment, psychological empowerment and leadership empowerment. In the study, there would be a limit on leadership empowerment to be one of the determinants of job satisfaction with power distance as a moderation variable. The leadership empowerment construct is known in literature to be empowerment leadership behaviours (Fock et al., 2013). Cerit (2009) found a strong positive relationship between servant leadership behaviours of school principals and teachers' job satisfaction. Amundsen & Martinsen (2015) said that it is reasonable to expect that leadership empowerment positively affects job satisfaction. According to Vecchio et al. (2010); Amundsen & Martinsen (2015), leaders who share power with their subordinates generally contribute to a...