Historical experience shows that states require considerable mobilization manpower resources to deploy their armed forces and make up for manpower lost during the course of war.
The countries (without their colonies) participating in World War II had mobilized 110 million out of the total of 210 million people, which is more than 10 percent of their total population.
Today's Russia has a need for a considerable reserve of the Armed Forces that should be made up of citizens trained in military occupational specialties.
The main documents regulating the creation of the Armed Forces reserve and the status of civilians in it are the federal laws "On Defense," "On Mobilization Training and Mobilization in the Russian Federation" and "On Military Service Obligation and Military Service." Provisions contained in the above laws specify that the reserve is intended for mobilization deployment of the Armed Forces, that it consists of militarily trained manpower and that serving in the reserve is one way in which citizens fulfil their military service obligation. Hence the basic requirements imposed on citizens in the reserves. They are supposed to be on the military registration books, assigned to appropriate military units and trained militarily, that is to say, they should upgrade their proficiency or receive training in certain military occupational specialties.
The acquisition of mobilization (militarily trained) manpower resources in the new socioeconomic conditions of the Russian Federation's development has a number of special points which consist: in the availability of a sufficient number of civilians in the reserves who cannot receive quality training in military occupational specialties under the existing system; in the hopeless practice of using the high-cost training camp sessions organized for civilians in the reserves while the Armed Forces have a growing need for specialists to operate high-tech pieces and systems of weapons and military equipment; in the reluctance of civilians in the reserves to substitute their regular employment at enterprises and organizations for training in military occupational specialties and jobs, to obey rules of military registration owing to the weak appeal of relations in the military, the weak government compulsion enactments and regulations and the virtual absence of financial and material recompense; in the absence of responsibility on the part of those in charge of the executive agencies of the Russian Federation components and organs of local governments for supervising the training and accumulation of mobilization manpower resources in their territories and keeping tabs of the observance of government and departmental regulatory and legal documents by the military administration agencies that sustain these processes.
All these things have to be scrutinized before drawing up proposals on how to improve the situation.
The current mobilization manpower resources in the Russian Federation are generally sufficient for the activation of troops (forces) to match the wartime strength level in accordance with existing plans. The quality of training of the civilians in the reserves is very low, however. Today, only one third of the required number of civilians in the reserves are suitable for being mobilized for active duty, because they still retain military knowledge, proficiency and skills and do not need long training in military occupational specialties. According to forecasts, this number will go down to 20 percent of the Armed Forces' requirements by the year 2010.
The principal method of training civilians in military occupational...