With three decades of data from more than 475,000 participants, a study on narcissism in the journal Psychological Bulletin reveals that men consistently scored higher in narcissism across multiple generations and regardless of age.
"Narcissism Is associated with various Interpersonal dysfunctions, including an inability to maintain healthy long-term relationships, unethical behavior, and aggression," says lead author Emily Grijalva. "At the same time, narcissism Is shown to boost self-esteem, emotional stability, and the tendency to emerge as a leader. By examining gender differences in narcissism, we may be able to explain gender disparities In these important outcomes."
The researchers studied gender differences in the three aspects of narcissism: leadership/authority, grandiose/exhibitionism, and entitlement. They found the widest gap in entitlement, suggesting that men are more likely than women to exploit others and feel entitled to certain privileges.
The second largest difference was in leadership/authority. "Compared with women, men exhibit more assertiveness and desire for power," Grijalva notes, "but there was no difference in the exhibitionism aspect...