Nurse interns in the university hospitals carry out full work responsibilities that need well-trained nurses. Clinical experience showed that nurse interns have inadequate performance regarding the effective managerial role. The predictors of these inadequacies appear in form of the following: delay of work assignment; inaccurate shift reports; incomplete patient records; and improper nursing rounds during internship year (Saad, 2003; Parson & Stonestreet, 2015; Ebrahem, 2015).
It is assumed that preparation of nurse interns with day to day management skills will help interns to adapt to their role quickly, prevent reality shock, thus can provide effective patient care. The current study was conducted to design, implement and evaluate a training program in nursing management for nurse interns.
Management is known as the art of achieving the best results with least efforts, it aims to achieve the highest success level and more happiness for both employer and workers and provide the public with high quality service. Moreover, management can be defined as the process of achieving institutional goals by working with and through staff and other institutional resources. In another word, management is the process of getting work done through others properly on time and within budget. In fact, management of human and physical resources is the corner stone of management process so more attention should be given to it (Duffield, 2014).
Nurse Manager is responsible for planning, organizing, directing, supervising, and controlling. Nurse Manager coordinates nursing efforts to provide high quality patient care and ensures meeting quality standards. Nurse Managers have a variety of roles supervising as patient care responsibilities, as well as management and leadership functions (Hodges, 2015).
Management Development can be defined as the systematic and long term application of behavioral science, knowledge and theory as a means of improving employees performance as measured by their ability to adapt to the goals, structure, culture of the organization in response to change. The primary focus for academic staff within the University is on teaching, learning and research in their own specialist subject. This focus ensures that many people will identify most closely with other people within their subject (Greenwood, 2016).
Management development strategy aims to meet the requirements outlined in the university training plan and human resources strategies to enhance future individual performance to support the strategic aims of the University and to equip and support staff to be able to respond to the changing demands of their roles. Organizations need a process for developing the skills of their managers as these employees direct and organize the work of other employees. Additionally, if you want to retain your best managers and potential managers, most significant among their needs from work is the opportunity to continue their personal and professional growth (Deana, 2015).
There are two ways to develop as managers; the first is an active and intelligent participation in the formal courses of instructions and management training pro-grams and the second is learning the techniques of management through actual job experiences in a work environment itself. Each organization should provide the training program and opportunities for development to its present as well as potential managers and offer ample scope for taints to conic forward (Tappen, 2015).
The urge for advancement and development must come from within the individual and a manager has to develop himself. In other words, self-motivation is the pivot of management development program. Top management must create an environment in which self-development is encouraged and facilitated (Barker & Ganti, 2013).
The internship program is a transitional stage of a nurse from educational experience to full work responsibilities. It is a crucial step for becoming a registered nurse in future. Nurse interns learn through direct hands-on care of patients and through familiarizing themselves with new skills. Nurse interns carry out the responsibilities of head nurses immediately after graduation as part of their internship training. Thus, they are exposed to a threatening situation where they should control and manipulate different variables (Mabrou, 2013; Henderson, 2014).
Transition of the person from student to newly graduate nurse is very stressful. Actually, reality shock is an experience of newly graduate nurses who find themselves in actual work situations without proper readiness that let them feel inadequately prepared. The period in which nurses need to confirm their knowledge and skills, and adjust their role accordingly is called the transition period. In the absence of adequate support, nursing staff have been found to search another clinical area or leave the work totally. The potential advantages of facilitating this period are reduction in work stressors and anxiety, increase job satisfaction and improve retention of staff (Padilha, 2015).
Reality shock consists of four phases as the following: Honeymoon phase in which newly graduate nurses become very happy to work in their clinical area and may say "everything is very nice'"; Shock phase where the newly graduate nurses begin to tolerate weaknesses and inconsistencies in their work area and their new colleagues; Recovery phase: as the newly graduate nurses begin to perceive the realities of the work environment and understand negative and positive aspects of their roles; and finally, Resolution phase: in this phase newly graduate nurses adopt some ideal values or beliefs to overcome the conflict of values and find ways communicate with their coworkers. Reality shock experienced by the new graduate can be prevented with preparation for the role transformation (Armstrong, 2016).
Therefore, educational training program is crucial to enhance newly graduate nurses' confidence, autonomy, and satisfaction that result in improved quality...