Author:Zamil, Ahmad


Consumers are exposed to a variety of effects or external stimulations, which act as a source of information about a product or a particular brand, and thus affect the consumers' desires, trends and their behavior towards certain product or brand (Al-Dossry, 2012; Badri, 1995). Among the external factors are those that are associated with components of the marketing and promotional mix of the manufacturing company which they are trying to make easy access to consumers, in order to persuade them to purchase and use those goods. The impact of these marketing and promotional efforts must be generally linked with the consumers' convictions and desires (Angel & Blackwell, 1990). The second type of external factors is associated with social and cultural environment which has significant impacts on consumers' attitudes and behaviors. The diapers are considered one of the essential commodities required by all families, and known for their familiar characteristics. Many housewives commonly prefer certain diapers rather than others and their attitude towards such products depends on several factors including: the brand name and its reputation in the market, the country that manufactured it, the attractive packing, the price, advertising and promotional activity. Moreover, the information and feedback which housewives get from published leaflets, free samples, and educational groups and public relations activities followed by the production or the marketing company of these diapers. Diapers' market is characterized by its large size, which increases the difficulties of the marketing task of such goods as they are considered very important and essential items in all houses. In light of the importance of trends and their role in determining the extent of the individuals' preferences to the purchase certain goods and services of all kinds, the researcher opted to study the Jordanian housewives' trends towards locally-made diapers for the purpose of improving and identifying effective marketing and promotional strategies that satisfy the needs and desires of consumers and respond seriously to face stiff competition from imported goods manufactured by the developed industrial countries.

Study Objectives

  1. Identify housewives' trends in Amman towards locally-made diapers compared with imported diapers from foreign countries.

  2. Recognize the impact of the quality of the goods, the means of advertising and the targeted groups on Jordanian housewives' trends towards home-made diapers compared with the imported items.

  3. Find-out the nature of the relationship between the perceived quality of the goods and means of advertising and targeted groups on one hand, and the Jordanian housewives' trends towards locally-made diapers in comparison with those imported on the other hand.

  4. Providing proposals and recommendations that aim at stimulating and strengthening the competitive position of the locally-made diapers.

    Study Significance

    The study stresses the need to increase studies that focus on consumers' behaviors in various countries all over the world, especially in the developed countries. The research aims to highlights trends of some Jordanian women's behavior concerning locally-produced goods such as "diapers" and compare them with the imported items.

    The study seeks to provide answers to the following questions:

  5. What are the trends of Jordanian housewives towards national diapers compared with imported foreign made diapers?

  6. What is the impact of perceived quality means of advertising and reference groups on Jordanian housewives' trends towards home-made diapers compared with imported diapers?

  7. Are there any differences in the relationship between the perceived quality of the goods, means of advertising and targeted groups and the Jordanian housewives' trends towards locally-produced diapers depending on demographic factors (such as educational level, age, marital status, employment status, category of monthly income and the number of family members)?

    Study Hypotheses

    This study is based on the following hypotheses:

  8. Housewives' trends towards locally-made diapers were negative compared with imported items.

  9. The perceived quality of the goods, the media, targeted groups, independent variables (perceived quality-media-reference groups) did not affect Jordanian housewives' trends towards locally-made diapers compared with imported produce.

  10. The relationship between the perceived quality of the goods, the media, targeted groups, independent variables (perceived quality-media-reference groups) and the Jordanian housewives' trends towards locally-made diapers is not different, in terms of demographic factors (educational level, age, socio-occupational situation-monthly income-the number of family members).

    Study Determinants

    There was a poor cooperation from some Jordanian housewives in filling up the form of the research tool, in addition to the lack of awareness and understanding of the meaning of scientific research or the field study, which require a longer time in the distribution of questionnaires and collecting the papers.


    A Study of (Al-Musawi & Btol, 1998) about (made in Bahrain) and its impact on public perception and purchasing decisions of consumer goods which results indicated that most the public felt that the country of origin is not a key factor that determines the purchase of consumer goods, but there are other factors such as: quality, price and packing. The study also confirmed that there was no strong relationship between public opinion and their demographic characteristics of the importance of the trade name of the product. Al-Otaibi (1998) focused on the targeted groups' impact which was most influential in rural and urban areas, and the similarities and differences between the impacts of the targeted groups in consumer choice of brand of those goods. The findings revealed that there was an effect of the targeted groups on the selection brand of durables and this impact differs between rural and urban areas, however, targeted groups influence was not different in the choosing process of the brand of goods by different demographic factors individually (educational level, age group, choose the brand of durables, (a study on the rural and urban areas in Jordan), to identify the targeted groups influence on the choice of the brand of durables (cars, fridges and TVs) and to identify which groups, income level, gender, number of members Family).

    Targeted groups in rural and urban areas play an important role in choosing the brand that was attributed to financial and social risks. Sumaida'ie (1996), conducted a research on the impact of the product properties on the consumer acceptance (a study applied on soda drinks): studying the relationship between the characteristics of the product and consumer acceptance & targeted groups. Among the main results was that consumer's interest in the characteristics of the product as they have a strong impact on the level of assessment, (as far as the product had high properties, it had a better assessment). Taani (1997) conducted a study regarding the Jordanian consumer trends towards consumer goods (a case study of coffee) to determine if there was a difference between Jordanian consumer trends to boycott according to different demographic factors (gender, age, and educational level, the housing and monthly income). Main results the relationship between coffee consumers' region and the components of trends (cognitive component, willingness component, and feeling component) separately differ by different demographic factors. And also the relationship varies between Jordanian consumers' boycott of coffee goods and their trends according to different demographic factors.

    Tamlih (1996) made a study on the impact of promotional tools on Jordanian women trends in use of skincare lotions (a comparative study between working women and unemployed women). The objectives of this study were to identify Jordanian women trends (workers and non-workers) to use skincare lotions, as a result of their exposure to various promotional tools, the impact of each mean to the trends of Jordanian women. The researcher also focused on identifying means of promotion used in skincare's' lotions marketing in the Jordanian market.

    The results showed that there was a positive trend of Jordanian women towards the use of these products and that there were no statistically significant differences between these trends among working and non-working Jordanian women. Moreover, Jordanian women believed that promotional methods used in the Jordanian market, especially by local producers of skincare lotions were unconvincing and not up to desires of the members...

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