Job satisfaction and self-efficacy as determinants of job performance of library personnel in selected university libraries in South West Nigeria.

Author:Adeeko, Kikelomo


The rapid social, industrial, technological and political developments in the world today pose great challenges to the management of university libraries in Nigeria. These challenges include political instability, unstable government policy, inadequate funding of university programmes among others, which often affect the personnel working conditions in such institutions of higher learning. Consequent upon this is economic, financial and technical problems on the effective management of university libraries in Nigeria. Apparently, the scenario has led to general dissatisfaction with jobs (poor job satisfaction), lack of commitment and loyalty, lack of confidence in the ability of workers and lack of comfort for the librarians in discharging their duties in their respective university libraries.

Job performance of a worker is determined by many factors such as work environment, knowledge, abilities, training skills, experience, technology or equipment available and willingness to improve on the job (Ajila, 1997). This is so in that, a work environment that is too hot or cold, dark and poorly ventilated will certainly not promote and encourage good job performance, thus culminating in poor productivity. However, a conducive work environment that is not hazardous and promotes collaboration, team work and trust is likely to encourage good job performance. In the opinion of Ajila and Abiola (2004), for an organisation to excel among its peers in this competitive world, job performance of its workforce goes a long way in determining its success. Performance could be high or low, and keeping high-performing employees has become a top priority for modern-day organisations, university libraries inclusive (Kaye & Jordan-Evans, 2003). They list the costs of losing good and high performing workers as enormous in terms of time and finance required to recruit, interview, hire, assess, train, and integrate new employees to replace the high performing ones who might have left. Thus, retention of high job performers should be the main concern of the management of academic libraries.

Shahu and Gole (2008) conducted an empirical study on relationship between job satisfaction and job performance, and eventually found out that, high stress level leads to low job performance whereas, high job satisfaction influences high or good job performance. They however advise various organisations to: create a conducive working environment; recognise and reward good performance; show concern about their workers' welfare, developmental goals and career aspirations; demonstrate respect for workers; encourage creativity and provide appropriate motivation and mentoring. All these will eventually culminate in high job performance from their workers and consequently, increased productivity.

Significant to this study is the question of poor job satisfaction and apparent poor performance among library personnel. The consequences of job satisfaction and lack of confidence in one's ability can be numerous and far reaching, particularly in relation to provision of good services to library users. Of particular importance is the age of information explosion, where emphasis is not only on information availability, but its accessibility and proper utilization.

Job satisfaction and self-efficacy of library personnel influence the quality of service being rendered. Job satisfaction is one of the criteria for establishing a healthy structure in an organisation, while capability of the staff also aids in achieving organisational goals and enhanced performance. Libraries are indispensable cornerstones of any society. Thus, to render effective services in the libraries depends on the quality of human resources (Kaya, 1995). The exodus of skilled personnel from higher institutions of learning in Nigeria is an ominous sign of job dissatisfaction in the country. Suffice it to say that, many workers in Nigeria do not regard work as an avenue for self actualisation, rather it is regarded as a means of getting something to eat.

Job satisfaction of library personnel, who have an important place in the information society of any university system in the country, will influence the quality of the service they render. The concept of job satisfaction has numerous definitions. According to Vroom (1967) job satisfaction is the reaction of workers against the role they play in their work. Similarly, Luthan (1998) viewed job satisfaction as an emotional response to a job situation, and that, it is contingent upon how well an outcome meets or exceeds expectation. Thus, when workers feel they are under-remunerated for the work done, they tend to express their displeasure through reduced output.

Ebru (1995) stated that, job satisfaction of librarians naturally depends on the economic, social and cultural conditions in a given country. The qualifications of the library personnel are the fundamental determinant of the development and organisation of their service. Rendering effective service in libraries depends on the quality of the library personnel. In addition, Islam and Islam (2011) were of the opinion that a key factor responsible for success in an organisation is employee job satisfaction, and that job satisfaction of library personnel can impact positively on their job performance and consequently their productivity.

Several studies have been carried out on job satisfaction of various workers aimed at determining the factors of job satisfaction and relationship between job satisfaction and job performance (Aamodt, 2015; Krietner & Kinicki, 2007; Court, 2012; Somvir & Kaushik, 2012). Job satisfaction has been identified as more than a single dimension but rather, a complex set of variables. In the views of Ademodi and Akintomide (2015), a worker who is not satisfied will either quit the job or constitute a liability to the organisation. Consequently, this may result in inefficiency, low productivity and low commitment. The degree to which workers' needs are met determines the level of their satisfaction and differences in employee needs and expectations seem to be related at occupational levels (Idachaba, 1995). He therefore posited that, the extent to which extrinsic job components are valued is found to be related to occupational level. For instance, at the higher level, intrinsic job components such as opportunity for self-expression, interest and value of work are more valued, whereas at lower occupational level, extrinsic job components such as pay, security and others are more valued.

However, numerous research results show that there are many factors that influence job satisfaction. Satisfying factors such as achievement, recognition and personal development motivate workers while dissatisfying ones have negative consequences. Motivating factors in the working environment result in job satisfaction of a worker while protective ones dissatisfy him/her (Herzberg, 1969). Besides, if some workers receive several awards compared to others, this will result in a feeling of guiltiness after a certain period, which may lead to, or cause dissatisfaction (Adams, 1963).

The construct of self-efficacy represents one core aspect of Bandura's social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1997, 2000, 2001). According to Bandura (2001), self-efficacy makes a difference in how people think, feel and act. That is, in terms of feeling, low self-efficacy is associated with depression, anxiety and helplessness. People with low self-efficacy also have low esteem, harbour pessimistic thoughts about their accomplishments and personal development (Schwarzer & Schmitz, 2005). Hence, librarians with high self-efficacy are likely to be creative and also perform more challenging tasks. High self-efficacy may also allow library personnel to select challenging settings, explore their library environment or create new ones in order to adequately disseminate information...

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