28 May 2014
The vast majority of care work--tasks such as caring for family members, collecting fuel and water, cooking meals, harvesting food and maintaining shelter--is performed by women. While this work is a labour-intensive essential component of daily life that also contributes to the health of a national economy, it is unremunerated, unquantified, and unacknowledged in most cases. In sub-Saharan Africa women dedicate a substantial portion of their time to care work, and this work is increased through insufficient government spending on social services, climate-related resource scarcity, and high rates of HIV/AIDS.
The World Bank underlined the importance of women's formal participation in labour markets in its 2009 gender strategy, and has acknowledged the link between care work and women's limited employment. While the Bank is thus ostensibly committed to address this issue, to what extent are its projects actually addressing women's unpaid care work in sub-Saharan Africa?
An overview of care and gender in World Bank investments in four countries
Malawi, Mali, Niger, and Rwanda represent four low-income sub-Saharan African countries where the World Bank has invested funds; Malawi and Rwanda are considered 'above average' for gender equality in the region, while Mali and Niger are considered 'below average'. In each of these countries, World Bank investments can be examined for gender sensitivity and specific focus on care work in four different sectors: agriculture, education, infrastructure, and private sector development.
Out of a total of 36 projects in these four sectors, only three explicitly focus on reducing women's lack of time--time poverty--due to care-related responsibilities, while the design of the remaining 33 projects fails to account for unpaid care work. This is a clear indicator that women's unpaid but necessary contributions are undervalued in project design, further hindering their employment and human development opportunities.
However there are some aspects of Bank investments that clearly do effectively integrate a gender dimension. Out of the 36 projects surveyed, 11 moderately to strongly take gender into account in their design. Out of these 11 World Bank development projects, eight have been approved and implemented since 2010; this demonstrates the Bank's increasing integration of gender dimensions into the design of projects, such as the recognition of women as stakeholders and project participants...