IS SUPERVISOR SUPPORT MATTER IN JOB SATISFACTION? A MODERATING ROLE OF FAIRNESS PERCEPTION AMONG NURSES IN PAKISTAN.

Author:Qureshi, Muhammad Asif
 
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INTRODUCTION

Healthcare system plays a critical role in the development and strengthening of nation's well-being across the globe (Swayne et al., 2012). The healthcare sector not only serves the basic need but also provides economic expansion opportunities (Mahmud & Parkhurst, 2007). According to the Deloitte recent annual report, the global healthcare sector is becoming increasingly competitive where there is a growing need for the committed workforce (Deloitte, 2015). Organizations today need a workforce that can deliver best services despite intense work pressure and competitiveness. The report has outlined that nations aiming for stable growth and stability in the long run, actually need to strengthen its healthcare sector. The report has also outlined that nurses have an important role (after doctors) in providing better healthcare services particularly when it comes to patient care.

Supervisor support denotes to perception about the supervisor being caring and recognizing (Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002). Support from immediate supervisor offers great strategic benefits to employees particularly in the achievement of work goals and organizational objectives. It helps not only employees to perform the immediate task but builds the overall professional knowledge of the employee. Prominently, there is a strong significance of supervisor support on employee outcomes (Cakmak-Otluoglu, 2012; Wang et al., 2013). Studies have outlined that positive perception of employees concerning to the support from a supervisor can facilitate in responsively working and boosting employee outcomes. In the similar regard, supervisor support has also termed to be significant for nurses (Hunt, 2014; Fila et al., 2014; Burke et al., 2012; Adams & Bond, 2000).

Studies have underlined that supervisor support is important for nurses due to the fact that it helps them to work effectively thus enhancing job satisfaction. However, there are studies that have highlighted the insignificant relationship between supervisor support and job satisfaction (Abiodun et al., 2013; Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002) in general and with regards to nurse job satisfaction in particular (Sangakala et al., 2016). Moreover, a study by Atefi et al. (2014) has outlined that supervisor support and its significance varies from one nurse to another. Similarly, a meta-analysis (Blegen, 1993) outlined lower correlation between supervisor support and job satisfaction. Thus, there are mixed results pertaining to the role and influence of supervisor support on nurse job satisfaction, requiring further empirical investigation.

Along with this, a more recently, a few studies challenge the traditional link between the job satisfaction and supervisor support by means of concluding none and inverse association (Shah et al., 2018; Brohi et al., 2018). The study concluded that supervisor support has insignificant impact on job satisfaction in nursing especially in the south Asian perspective. Hence, based on inconsistent findings, recommendations for further research and the paucity of empirical investigation on Nurses in developing economies, particularly in Pakistan; the current study aims to investigate how supervisor support can enhance nurse job satisfaction in the public sector hospitals of Pakistan which is in line with what elaborated previously regarding the worst condition of nurses' job satisfaction in the public sector hospitals of Sindh, Pakistan.

The aim of this paper is to bridge the aforementioned theoretical and practical gaps, a quantitative study is needed to analyze the impact of supervisor support on the nurses' job satisfaction in the public hospitals of Pakistan. One of the limitations in the existing literature is the absence of investigating the role of fairness perception and the adverse exertion faced by nurses in the workplace. In compliance, the aim of the present study is to fill the gap of the role of fairness perception and hospital environment that cause severe negative exertion and attitudinal consequences related to the profession including lack of job satisfaction (WHO, 2013). The uniqueness of the present study also lies in investigating the role of supervisor support, that is imperative to be highlighted together with the mentioned variables. Supervisor support tends to affect job satisfaction and subjects to enhance the level of job satisfaction (Griffin et al., 2001). Thus, the present study presents a fresh viewpoint in not only studying the critical impact of supervisor support in affecting job satisfaction, but the exclusivity of the present study is extended to analyze the contribution of fairness perception in moderating the relationship of supervisor support on job satisfaction and thus constitute an exclusive examination. In doing so, the present study based the theoretical support on the Frederick Herzberg two factor theory (1959) and uses the unique combination of the hygiene and motivational factor of supervisor support on the nurses' job satisfaction. The current study has provided a pioneer attempt to study the combined effects of the above-mentioned variables in the nursing profession of Pakistan. To the best of our knowledge, the existing public sector studies on nursing lacks the theoretical support in explaining issues of nurses in Pakistan (Khaliq et al., 2011; Ansari et al., 2015). The remaining part of the study consist of following section. Section 2 explains the literature review about the job clarity and job satisfaction. Section 3 describes the methodology, section 4 clarifies the data analysis and discussion section and section 5 finalize the conclusion and policy recommendations.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Organizational theory defined the supervisor support change the employee's level of the satisfaction in the organization (Eisenberger et al., 1986), supervisor support increase the employee's satisfaction (Griffin et al., 2001). Supervisor support is described as employees' views concerning their supervisor's value, care about their well-being (Eisenberger et al., 1986). The supervisor is responsible for leading and motivates the employees to perform better in the organization create the environment that brings the positive attitude. The supervisor positive feedback force employees to job satisfaction (Levinson, 1965).

Supervisor support helps employees to increase the commitment and loyalty of employees through job satisfaction (Hossain & Aktar, 2012). Supervisor support was defined as the extent to which employees believe their supervisors value their contributions, offer assistance, and care about their well-being (Kossek et al., 2011; Kottke & Sharafinski, 1988). As supervisors are agents of the organization, measuring supervisor support allows employers to take corrective action to ensure that employees view supervisors favorably and create stronger organizational...

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