Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment–Revised Scores in Adolescents: A Psychometric and Person‐Oriented Study

AuthorJames R. Andretta,Michael T. McKay,John L. Perry,Séamus A. Harvey
Published date01 July 2017
Date01 July 2017
J R. A Superior Court of the District of Columbia
M T. MK University of Liverpool
S A. H Bangor University
J L. P University of Hull
Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment–Revised
Scores in Adolescents: A Psychometric and
Person-Oriented Study
Objective: Identify perceived parental security
proles and examine differences across proles
with regard to self-esteem and three domains
of self-efcacy (i.e., social, emotional, and
Background: The Inventory of Parent and Peer
Attachment–Revised (IPPA-R) is an index of
the quality of communication, feelings of trust,
and degree of alienation that adolescents and
young adults perceive in their parental and peer
relationships. However, the factor structure of
IPPA-R scores has yet to be examined in ado-
lescents, and no study to date has included
a person-oriented analysis using the assess-
ment tool.
Method: Conrmatory factor analysis (CFA)
and exploratory structural equation modeling
(ESEM) were planned to examine the structural
validity of IPPA-R scores in a large sample of
adolescents (N=1,126; 61% male, 12–16 years
of age). Model-based clustering was employed
Superior Court of the District of Columbia, Child Guidance
Clinic, 510 4th Street, NW #330, Washington, DC 20001
Key Words: Adolescents, Inventory of Parent and Peer
Attachment–Revised, parent attachment, peer attachment,
perceived parental security.
to enumerate perceived parental security pro-
les, and Cohen’s deffect sizes were used to
interpret prole differences in outcomes.
Results: CFA (root mean square error of
approximation, RMSEA =.06, comparative t
index, CFI =.90) and ESEM (RMSEA =.04,
CFI =.95) substantiated the proposed three-
factor structure for IPPA-R parent (but not
peer) scores. Model-based clustering led to
the identication of ve perceived parental
security proles: (a) high security, (b) mod-
erately high security, (c) average security, (d)
moderately low security, and (e) low security.
Adolescents with high security and low security
proles, respectively, reported the highest and
lowest levels of self-esteem and self-efcacy
(0.48 Cohen’s d1.67).
Conclusion: IPPA-Rparent, but not peer,scores
appear to be a valid index of perceived parental
security in adolescents. Perceived parental
security proles are strongly associated with
Implications: A student’s self-condence in his
or her ability to manage emotions and cope with
the academic demands of school is explained,
in part, by perceived parental security. There-
fore, interventions designed to develop feelings
of trust and closeness with parents, as well as
Family Relations 66 (July 2017): 527–540 527

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