Information flows in a circular format, just like water flows from one place to another even into people's houses, shops and offices like crude oil flowing in pipelines into people's cars and generators, so does information pervade every facet of society. An example is when a lecturer in a class passed information to students and requires a feed back from them.
According to Opara (2003) information is the life blood of modern organizations. That is to say that without information, an organization is bound to collapse. Information is needed to control the day-to-day running of an organization. Olowu (2004) says that information entails data, facts, imaginations, ideas, opinions, cultural values in a variety of media which includes print, audio-visual materials and electronic processes. This shows how information flows within and between cultural groups. The dynamic aspect of information flow represents an important part of Nissan (2002) alternative conceptualization, which focuses on transaction (e.g. data to information, information to knowledge). This means that data are necessary to produce information which in turn is necessary for creating knowledge that is conveyed (e.g. via paper, network, speech, observable action). Aguolu (2002) sees information as the message of human experience; that is, what is transmitted as signal, or a stimulus, that it assumes a response in the receiver, and therefore possesses a response potential. The message can be made on any subject, in any language and in any medium.
Concepts of Information
Psychologists have described information dissemination or communication as a need comparable with other basic needs while philosophers posit that the free flow of information is a right of the people which enables them to participate effectively in the process of economic and socio-political activities in the society and enhances education, knowledge and the learning process. For people to take calculated and appropriate decisions on issues that affect them, Eze (1999) while Agolu (2002) believe that the presence of information creates options and sets the stage for meaningful decision-making.
Information constitutes the raw materials from which options or alternatives emerge. Appe (2002) in her paper from State intervention to cultural synthesizm in Bogota Columbia writes that in order to solve revolving problems between guerrilla groups, paramilitary militias, and drug trafficking, Columbia's cultural sector produced...